Correction: Investigating the gut microbiota composition of individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and association with symptoms (Microorganisms

Joanna Szopinska-Tokov, Sarita Dam, Jilly Naaijen, Prokopis Konstanti, Nanda Rommelse, Clara Belzer, Jan Buitelaar, Barbara Franke, Mirjam Bloemendaal, Esther Aarts, Alejandro Arias Vasquez*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalComment/Letter to the editorAcademic


The authors wish to make the following correction to this paper [1]: After the publication of the manuscript, the authors recognized a mismatch in the link between the microbiota sequencing data (from ADHD cases and controls) and their descriptive and behavioral data. Thus, the manuscript had to be reanalyzed and rewritten, resulting in different results and conclusion. The main difference is that the case-control comparison resulted in different bacteria differences. Moreover, we did not find an association (only at trend level) between the microbiome relative abundance and inattention score. The corrected results, discussion, and conclusion, can be found below. Due to the changes the abstract, and material and methods section had to be adjusted as well. The changes are provided below. The authors would like to apologize for any inconvenience caused to the readers by these changes. Changes in Abstract The results and conclusion in the abstract changed to: Alpha and Beta-diversity were not different between participants with ADHD and healthy controls. Three genera showed nominal differences (puncorrected < 0.05) between both groups (Prevotella_9, Coprococcus_2 and Intestinibacter) and were further tested for their association with ADHD symptom scores (adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, a time delay between feces collection and symptoms assessment, medication use and family relatedness). Our results show that the variation of a genus from the Lachnospiraceae family (Coprococcus_2) showed a trend of being negatively associated with inattention symptoms. Furthermore, we showed that the relative abundance of four genera was reduced by ADHD medication (puncorrected < 0.05). Overall, our results may support the role of the gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of ADHD. Given the scarcity of studies on the gut microbiota in individuals with ADHD, the current results are an important contribution to this field. More studies are needed into the gut microbiota as part of the pathology of ADHD, especially with a bigger sample size across the lifespan and more detailed information about lifestyle. Changes in Materials and Methods Certain changes had to be applied in the material and methods section. First, for easier maintenance and reproducibility, we used R software instead of SPSS to reanalyze microbiome data. This means that we calculated the alpha-diversity metrics using the R function microbiome::alpha (version 1.6.0) and the composition analysis using “phyloseq” R package version 1.28.0. Second, we used the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test method in order to identify differences in genera between cases and controls. This was visualized by using a boxplot with a summary table representing the number of zeros using “ggpubr” R package version Third, in the regression analyses, we had to adjust the number of total tests used in FDR to 6 and not 14 tests. Fourth, the new results of the “2.2.9. Correlation Analysis and Multiple Regression with All Selected Genera” are shown in the Supplementary Materials. Changes in Results The data had to be reanalyzed; thus, all the results changed includes all the tables and figures. For easier readability, the whole (corrected) results section is provided below: 3. Results 3.1. Subjects Characteristics The general characteristics of the studied sample are presented in Table 1. Mean age, median BMI, percentage of males, and differences in days between fecal collection and ADHD symptoms assessment (diff_days) were similar among the two groups. As expected, mean inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity scores were statistically different between the ADHD and control groups. Out of the 41 participants with ADHD, 19 were using medication for ADHD. (Figure and Table Presented).

Original languageEnglish
Article number1358
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 23 Jun 2021


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