Controls on the onset and termination of past hypoxia in the Baltic Sea

Nina M. Papadomanolaki, Nikki Dijkstra, Niels A.G.M. Van Helmond, Mathilde Hagens, Thorsten Bauersachs, Ulrich Kotthoff, Francesca Sangiorgi, Caroline P. Slomp

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Baltic Sea is currently the largest marine hypoxic (O2 < 2 mg L− 1) ‘dead zone’ following excessive nutrient input from anthropogenic activities over the past century. Widespread hypoxia has previously developed in the Baltic Sea during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM; 8–4 ka before present; BP) and the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; 1.4–0.7 ka BP). Here we study the mechanisms that contributed to the onset and termination of this past hypoxia using geochemical and marine palynological data from a sediment record retrieved from the Landsort Deep during IODP Expedition 347 (Site M0063). Dinoflagellate cyst records and TEX86L-based sea surface temperature reconstructions indicate a major increase in salinity and temperature prior to and across the onset of the HTM hypoxic interval, underlining the importance of both temperature and salinity stratification in providing conditions conducive to the onset of hypoxia. Both salinity and temperature decline during the termination of the HTM hypoxic interval. In contrast, we find no evidence for significant changes in surface salinity during the MCA hypoxic interval and both the onset and termination of hypoxia appear to have been primarily driven by changes in temperature. Our results indicate that temperature and salinity changes were key drivers of past hypoxia in the Baltic Sea and imply that ongoing climate change will delay recovery from the modern, nutrient-driven hypoxic event in the Baltic Sea.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)347-354
JournalPalaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology
Volume490
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2018

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hypoxia
Baltic Sea
salinity
temperature
dinoflagellate cyst
nutrient
Hypsithermal
nutrients
Medieval
surface temperature
anthropogenic activities
stratification
human activity
sea surface temperature
sea
Holocene
climate change
climate
heat
anomaly

Cite this

Papadomanolaki, N. M., Dijkstra, N., Van Helmond, N. A. G. M., Hagens, M., Bauersachs, T., Kotthoff, U., ... Slomp, C. P. (2018). Controls on the onset and termination of past hypoxia in the Baltic Sea. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, 490, 347-354. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2017.11.012
Papadomanolaki, Nina M. ; Dijkstra, Nikki ; Van Helmond, Niels A.G.M. ; Hagens, Mathilde ; Bauersachs, Thorsten ; Kotthoff, Ulrich ; Sangiorgi, Francesca ; Slomp, Caroline P. / Controls on the onset and termination of past hypoxia in the Baltic Sea. In: Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology. 2018 ; Vol. 490. pp. 347-354.
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Papadomanolaki, NM, Dijkstra, N, Van Helmond, NAGM, Hagens, M, Bauersachs, T, Kotthoff, U, Sangiorgi, F & Slomp, CP 2018, 'Controls on the onset and termination of past hypoxia in the Baltic Sea', Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, vol. 490, pp. 347-354. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2017.11.012

Controls on the onset and termination of past hypoxia in the Baltic Sea. / Papadomanolaki, Nina M.; Dijkstra, Nikki; Van Helmond, Niels A.G.M.; Hagens, Mathilde; Bauersachs, Thorsten; Kotthoff, Ulrich; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Slomp, Caroline P.

In: Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, Vol. 490, 01.01.2018, p. 347-354.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Controls on the onset and termination of past hypoxia in the Baltic Sea

AU - Papadomanolaki, Nina M.

AU - Dijkstra, Nikki

AU - Van Helmond, Niels A.G.M.

AU - Hagens, Mathilde

AU - Bauersachs, Thorsten

AU - Kotthoff, Ulrich

AU - Sangiorgi, Francesca

AU - Slomp, Caroline P.

PY - 2018/1/1

Y1 - 2018/1/1

N2 - The Baltic Sea is currently the largest marine hypoxic (O2 < 2 mg L− 1) ‘dead zone’ following excessive nutrient input from anthropogenic activities over the past century. Widespread hypoxia has previously developed in the Baltic Sea during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM; 8–4 ka before present; BP) and the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; 1.4–0.7 ka BP). Here we study the mechanisms that contributed to the onset and termination of this past hypoxia using geochemical and marine palynological data from a sediment record retrieved from the Landsort Deep during IODP Expedition 347 (Site M0063). Dinoflagellate cyst records and TEX86L-based sea surface temperature reconstructions indicate a major increase in salinity and temperature prior to and across the onset of the HTM hypoxic interval, underlining the importance of both temperature and salinity stratification in providing conditions conducive to the onset of hypoxia. Both salinity and temperature decline during the termination of the HTM hypoxic interval. In contrast, we find no evidence for significant changes in surface salinity during the MCA hypoxic interval and both the onset and termination of hypoxia appear to have been primarily driven by changes in temperature. Our results indicate that temperature and salinity changes were key drivers of past hypoxia in the Baltic Sea and imply that ongoing climate change will delay recovery from the modern, nutrient-driven hypoxic event in the Baltic Sea.

AB - The Baltic Sea is currently the largest marine hypoxic (O2 < 2 mg L− 1) ‘dead zone’ following excessive nutrient input from anthropogenic activities over the past century. Widespread hypoxia has previously developed in the Baltic Sea during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM; 8–4 ka before present; BP) and the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; 1.4–0.7 ka BP). Here we study the mechanisms that contributed to the onset and termination of this past hypoxia using geochemical and marine palynological data from a sediment record retrieved from the Landsort Deep during IODP Expedition 347 (Site M0063). Dinoflagellate cyst records and TEX86L-based sea surface temperature reconstructions indicate a major increase in salinity and temperature prior to and across the onset of the HTM hypoxic interval, underlining the importance of both temperature and salinity stratification in providing conditions conducive to the onset of hypoxia. Both salinity and temperature decline during the termination of the HTM hypoxic interval. In contrast, we find no evidence for significant changes in surface salinity during the MCA hypoxic interval and both the onset and termination of hypoxia appear to have been primarily driven by changes in temperature. Our results indicate that temperature and salinity changes were key drivers of past hypoxia in the Baltic Sea and imply that ongoing climate change will delay recovery from the modern, nutrient-driven hypoxic event in the Baltic Sea.

U2 - 10.1016/j.palaeo.2017.11.012

DO - 10.1016/j.palaeo.2017.11.012

M3 - Article

VL - 490

SP - 347

EP - 354

JO - Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology

JF - Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology

SN - 0031-0182

ER -