Contribution of complementary foods to the total daily water needs of urban Guatemalan infants

A. Enneman, R. Campos, L. Hernandez, A.V. Palma, M. Vossenaar, N.W. Solomons

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Estimates of adequate intake (AI) for water only became available in 2005. The daily water AI for 6-12-month-old infants of both sexes is 800 mL. The present study aimed to estimate the water intake of urban infants receiving both breast milk and complementary feeding (CF) and to compare them with the reference AI. Methods: Sixty-four infants, 42 boys and 22 girls, aged 6-12 months on enrolment, from a low-income district of Guatemala City, were recruited to the study. Quantitative 24-h recalls and breastfeeding histories were collected in three serial interviews. The quantity of water was estimated from recipes and food composition moisture values for the CF items reported. The amount of breast milk needed to complement foods and beverages in meeting the individual energy needs was calculated, and breast milk's water contribution was derived accordingly. The total quantity of water in beverages, including human milk, liquids in recipes and moisture of foods, was tabulated as the infants' daily intake. Results: Some 56.3% of the water needs for boys and 41.1% for girls were satisfied by just water obtained from plain water, other complementary beverages and moisture of foods within CF, exclusive of breast milk. Adding the estimated breast milk intake, the median water intake for the infant sample was essentially equal to the 800 mL of the AI. Conclusions: The infants in this low-income community are approximating the recommended AI for daily water through the currently selected pattern of lactation and CF.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)520-528
JournalJournal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2010


  • milk intake
  • nutrient
  • inadequate
  • toddlers
  • quality
  • maize


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