Consumption of unprocessed cow's milk protects infants from common respiratory infections

G. Loss, M. Depner, L.H. Ulfman, R.J.J. van Neerven, A.J. Hose, J. Genuneit

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

55 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Breast-feeding is protective against respiratory infections in early life. Given the co-evolutionary adaptations of humans and cattle, bovine milk might exert similar anti-infective effects in human infants. Objective: To study effects of consumption of raw and processed cow's milk on common infections in infants. Methods: The PASTURE birth cohort followed 983 infants from rural areas in Austria, Finland, France, Germany, and Switzerland, for the first year of life, covering 37,306 person-weeks. Consumption of different types of cow's milk and occurrence of rhinitis, respiratory tract infections, otitis, and fever were assessed by weekly health diaries. C-reactive protein levels were assessed using blood samples taken at 12 months. Results: When contrasted with ultra-heat treated milk, raw milk consumption was inversely associated with occurrence of rhinitis (adjusted odds ratio from longitudinal models [95% CI]: 0.71 [0.54-0.94]), respiratory tract infections (0.77 [0.59-0.99]), otitis (0.14 [0.05-0.42]), and fever (0.69 [0.47-1.01]). Boiled farm milk showed similar but weaker associations. Industrially processed pasteurized milk was inversely associated with fever. Raw farm milk consumption was inversely associated with C-reactive protein levels at 12 months (geometric means ratio [95% CI]: 0.66 [0.45-0.98]). Conclusions: Early life consumption of raw cow's milk reduced the risk of manifest respiratory infections and fever by about 30%. If the health hazards of raw milk could be overcome, the public health impact of minimally processed but pathogen-free milk might be enormous, given the high prevalence of respiratory infections in the first year of life and the associated direct and indirect costs.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)56-62
JournalJournal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Volume135
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Keywords

  • 1st year
  • atopic sensitization
  • childhood asthma
  • viral-infections
  • birth-cohort
  • life
  • children
  • inflammation
  • prevention
  • proteins

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