Introduction: Sugar intake is highly debated due to the suggested health implications and the recently updated recommendations on free sugars by the World Health Organization. Objectives: To estimate the intake of total mono- and disaccharides, free sugars, added sugars, and sucrose, food sources, and adherence to dietary guidelines in a representative sample of the Dutch population. Method / Design: In all, 3817 men and women (7-69 years) from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010 were studied. Values for sugar content of products were assigned using several food composition tables. Diet was assessed with two non-consecutive 24-hour recalls. Diet quality was studied in adults using the Dutch Healthy Diet index, a score which measures adherence to the Dutch dietary guidelines. Results: Median intake was 115 g/d (22 en%) for total mono- and disaccharides, 74 g/d (14 en%) for free sugars, 64 g/d (12 en%) for added sugars, and 61 g/d (11 en%) for sucrose. Sugar consumption was higher in children than adults, and higher in men than women across all age categories. Soft drinks, cake/cookies, sugar/honey/jams, juices, and chocolate were main sources of total mono- and disaccharides, free sugars, added sugars, and sucrose. Prevalence of a free sugar intake <10 en% was 5% in boys and girls (7-18 years), 33% in men (19- 69 years), and 29% in women (19-69 years); 0% of the children and 4% of the adults had a free sugar intake <5 en%. Overall diet quality was similar between adherent and non-adherent adults to the guideline of <10 en% free sugars. Conclusions: Soft drinks, cake/cookies, sugar/honey/jams, juices, and chocolate contributed most to the consumption of sugars in the Netherlands. Adherence to the guideline of <10 en% free sugars was generally low, particularly in children. Overall diet quality did not differ between adherent and non-adherent adults.
Sluik, D., van Lee, L., Engelen, A. I. P., & Feskens, E. J. M. (2015). Consumption of sugars, food sources and adherence to dietary guidelines in the Netherlands. Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism, 67(suppl.1), 159.