Considerations and consequences of allowing DNA sequence data as types of fungal taxa

Juan Carlos Zamora*, Måns Svensson, Roland Kirschner, Ibai Olariaga, Svengunnar Ryman, Luis Alberto Parra, József Geml, Anna Rosling, Slavomír Adamčík, Teuvo Ahti, M.C. Aime, A.M. Ainsworth, László Albert, Edgardo Albertó, Alberto Altés García, Dmitry Ageev, Reinhard Agerer, Begoña Aguirre-Hudson, Joe Ammirati, Harry AnderssonClaudio Angelini, Vladimír Antonín, Takayuki Aoki, André Aptroot, Didier Argaud, Blanca Imelda Arguello Sosa, Arne Aronsen, Ulf Arup, Bita Asgari, Boris Assyov, Violeta Atienza, Ditte Bandini, João Luís Baptista-Ferreira, Hans-Otto Baral, Tim Baroni, Robert Weingart Barreto, Henry Beker, Ann Bell, Jean-Michel Bellanger, Francesco Bellù, Martin Bemmann, Mika Bendiksby, Egil Bendiksen, Katriina Bendiksen, Lajos Benedek, Anna Bérešová-Guttová, Franz Berger, Reinhard Berndt, Annarosa Bernicchia, Alona Yu. Biketova, Enrico Bizio, Curtis Bjork, Teun Boekhout, David Boertmann, Tanja Böhning, Florent Boittin, Carlos G. Boluda, Menno W. Boomsluiter, Jan Borovička, Tor Erik Brandrud, Uwe Braun, Irwin Brodo, Tatiana Bulyonkova, Harold H. Burdsall, Bart Buyck, Ana Rosa Burgaz, Vicent Calatayud, Philippe Callac, Emanuele Campo, Massimo Candusso, Brigitte Capoen, Joaquim Carbó, Matteo Carbone, Rafael F. Castañeda-ruiz, Michael A. Castellano, Jie Chen, Philippe Clerc, Giovanni Consiglio, Gilles Corriol, Régis Courtecuisse, Ana Crespo, Cathy Cripps, Pedro W. Crous, Gladstone Alves Da Silva, Meiriele Da Silva, Marjo Dam, Nico Dam, Frank Dämmrich, Kanad Das, Linda Davies, Eske De Crop, Andre De Kesel, T.W.M. Kuijper

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Nomenclatural type definitions are one of the most important concepts in biological nomenclature. Being physical objects that can be re-studied by other researchers, types permanently link taxonomy (an artificial agreement to classify biological diversity) with nomenclature (an artificial agreement to name biological diversity). Two proposals to amend the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), allowing DNA sequences alone (of any region and extent) to serve as types of taxon names for voucherless fungi (mainly putative taxa from environmental DNA sequences), have been submitted to be voted on at the 11th International Mycological Congress (Puerto Rico, July 2018). We consider various genetic processes affecting the distribution of alleles among taxa and find that alleles may not consistently and uniquely represent the species within which they are contained. Should the proposals be accepted, the meaning of nomenclatural types would change in a fundamental way from physical objects as sources of data to the data themselves. Such changes are conducive to irreproducible science, the potential typification on artefactual data, and massive creation of names with low information content, ultimately causing nomenclatural instability and unnecessary work for future researchers that would stall future explorations of fungal diversity. We conclude that the acceptance of DNA sequences alone as types of names of taxa, under the terms used in the current proposals, is unnecessary and would not solve the problem of naming putative taxa known only from DNA sequences in a scientifically defensible way. As an alternative, we highlight the use of formulas for naming putative taxa (candidate taxa) that do not require any modification of the ICN.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)167-185
JournalIMA fungus
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2018

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    Zamora, J. C., Svensson, M., Kirschner, R., Olariaga, I., Ryman, S., Parra, L. A., Geml, J., Rosling, A., Adamčík, S., Ahti, T., Aime, M. C., Ainsworth, A. M., Albert, L., Albertó, E., García, A. A., Ageev, D., Agerer, R., Aguirre-Hudson, B., Ammirati, J., ... Kuijper, T. W. M. (2018). Considerations and consequences of allowing DNA sequence data as types of fungal taxa. IMA fungus, 9(1), 167-185.