Conserving large populations of lions - the argument for fences has holes

S. Creel*, M.S. Becker, S.M. Durant, J. M'Soka, W. Matandiko, A.J. Dickman, D. Christianson, E. Dröge, T. Mweetwa, N. Pettorelli, E. Rosenblatt, P. Schuette, R. Woodroffe, S. Bashir, R.C. Beudels-Jamar, S. Blake, M. Borner, C. Breitenmoser, F. Broekhuis, G. CozziT.R.B. Davenport, J. Deutsch, L. Dollar, S. Dolrenry, I. Douglas-Hamilton, E. Fitzherbert, C. Foley, L. Hazzah, P. Henschel, R. Hilborn, J.G.C. Hopcraft, D. Ikanda, A. Jacobson, B. Joubert, D. Joubert, M.S. Kelly, L. Lichtenfeld, G.M. Mace, J. Milanzi, N. Mitchell, M. Msuha, R. Muir, J. Nyahongo, S. Pimm, G. Purchase, C. Schenck, C. Sillero-Zubiri, A.R.E. Sinclair, A.N. Songorwa, M. Stanley-Price, C.A. Tehou, C. Trout, J. Wall, G. Wittemyer, A. Zimmermann

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

63 Citations (Scopus)


Packer et al. reported that fenced lion populations attain densities closer to carrying capacity than unfenced populations. However, fenced populations are often maintained above carrying capacity, and most are small. Many more lions are conserved per dollar invested in unfenced ecosystems, which avoid the ecological and economic costs of fencing.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1413-14e3
JournalEcology Letters
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Carnivores
  • Conservation
  • Cost-effectiveness
  • Fence
  • Lions
  • Population density
  • Population size


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