The present study aimed to investigate associations between adherence to the recommendations on cancer prevention from the WCRF/AICR and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in Morocco. Incident CRC cases (n = 1,516) and controls (n = 1,516) matched on age, sex and center, were recruited between September 2009 and February 2017 at five major hospitals located in Morocco. In-person interviews were conducted to assess habitual diet using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire, physical activity and anthropometric measurements. Adherence to the WCRF/AIRC Recommendations was ranged from 0 (no adherence) to 6 (maximal adherence) and incorporating six WCRF/AICR components (food groups, physical activity and BMI). Multivariable odd ratios (OR A ) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using conditional multivariate logistic regression models, with low adherence as referent, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Compared to those with the lowest adherence score, individuals in the highest WCRF/AICR score category had a statistically significant reduced risk for colon cancer (OR A = 0.63, 95% CI 0.53–0.76); rectal cancer (OR A = 0.52, 95% CI 0.43–0.63) and CRC overall (OR A = 0.58, 95% CI 0.51–0.66). For individual score components, when comparing the lowest with the highest adherence category, CRC risk was significantly lower in the highest adherence category for body fatness (OR A = 0.73; 95% CI 0.62–0.85), physical activity (OR A = 0.70; 95% CI 0.60–0.82), plant foods (OR A = 0.50; 95% CI 0.39–0.63) and red/processed meat (OR A = 0.81; 95% CI 0.71–0.92). Our analysis indicated that greater adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations for cancer prevention may lower CRC risk in Morocco.
- case–control study, FFQ, Morocco
- colorectal cancer
- WCRF/AICR recommendations