Compliance of feed limits, does not mean compliance of food limits

L.W.D. van Raamsdonk, J.C.H. van Eijkeren, G.A.L. Meijer, M. Rennen, M.J. Zeilmaker, L.A.P. Hoogenboom, M.J.B. Mengelers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleProfessional

12 Citations (Scopus)


The carry-over of contaminants from feed to animal food products is an important aspect of the animal production chain. For a proper containment, limits for feed as well food products are fixed for a series of chemicals, e.g. dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs, lead, cadmium, some chlorinated pesticides, and aflatoxin B1 (and its metabolite M1 in milk). The relationship between feed and food limits is an important issue. An ideal goal is to assure that compliance to a feed limits automatically results in compliance to food limits. In order to collect information about this relationship, several simulation models and a large database on transfer factors have been developed. An optimal choice between either a model or an application of data from the Transfer Database is based on both the knowledge level, and on the circumstances of the specific situation. To reach and validate such an optimal choice an Expert System Carry-Over is currently in development, containing four different modules: 1) the different calculation models and the Transfer Database, 2) a decision tree for choosing the optimal strategy, 3) data tables indicating knowledge levels of compound/animal/product parameters, and 4) supporting databases containing information on consumption and composition of daily diets, animal parameters, and amounts of (daily) production. Calculations indicate that for dioxins compliance to feed levels does not necessarily mean that food limits are complied as well. Besides an estimation of the compliance to limits, the expert system is a tool for feed related risk assessments, and for planning of future research. Keywords. Feed safety, animal health, carry-over, simulation models, decision support system, chemical contaminants, dioxin, aflatoxin, cadmium, nickel
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)51-57
JournalBiotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Enviroment
Issue numberS
Publication statusPublished - 2009


  • dioxins
  • risk
  • soil

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Compliance of feed limits, does not mean compliance of food limits'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this