Complete sequences of four plasmids of Lactococcus lactis subsp cremoris SK11 reveal extensive adaptation to the dairy environment

R.J. Siezen, B. Renckens, I. van Swam, S. Peters, R. van Kranenburg, M. Kleerebezem, W.M. de Vos

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109 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Lactococcus lactis strains are known to carry plasmids encoding industrially important traits. L. lactis subsp. cremoris SK11 is widely used by the dairy industry in cheese making. Its complete plasmid complement was sequenced and found to contain the plasmids pSK11A (10,372 bp), pSK11B (13,332 bp), pSK11L (47,165 bp), and pSK11P (75,814 bp). Six highly homologous repB-containing replicons were found, all belonging to the family of lactococcal theta-type replicons. Twenty-three complete insertion sequence elements segment the plasmids into numerous modules, many of which can be identified as functional units or containing functionally related genes. Plasmid-encoded functions previously known to reside on L. lactis SK11 plasmids were now mapped in detail, e.g., lactose utilization (lacR-lacABCDFEGX), the proteolytic system (prtM-prtP, pepO, pepF), and the oligopeptide permease system (oppDFBCA). Newly identified plasmid-encoded functions could facilitate the uptake of various cations, while the pabA and pabB genes could be essential for folate biosynthesis. A competitive advantage could be obtained by using the putative flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase and oxalate:formate antiporter for enhanced ATP synthesis, while the activity of the predicted -acetolactate decarboxylase may contribute to the formation of an additional electron sink. Various stress response proteins are plasmid encoded, which could enhance strain robustness. A substantial number of these "adaptation" genes have not been described before on L. lactis plasmids. Moreover, several genes were identified for the first time in L. lactis, possibly reflecting horizontal gene transfer
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8371-8382
JournalApplied and Environmental Microbiology
Volume71
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2005

Keywords

  • oligopeptide transport-system
  • complete genome sequence
  • group-ii intron
  • acid bacteria
  • transcriptional analysis
  • lactate-dehydrogenase
  • nucleotide-sequence
  • molecular analysis
  • serine proteinase
  • escherichia-coli

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