Comparison of gas chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight and quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometry in anti-doping analysis: I. Detection of anabolic-androgenic steroids

Wadha Abushareeda, Marc Tienstra, Arjen Lommen, Marco Blokland, Saskia Sterk, Suhail Kraiem, Peter Horvatovich, Michel Nielen, Muhammad Al-Maadheed, Costas Georgakopoulos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Rationale: The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) encourages drug-testing laboratories to develop screening methods that can detect as many doping substances as possible in urine. The use of full-scan high-resolution acquisition (FS/HR) with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for the detection of known and unknown trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) provides anti-doping testing bodies with a new analytical tool. Methods: The AAS were extracted from urine samples by generic liquid–liquid extraction, after enzymatic hydrolysis, and TMS derivatization. The extracted urine was analyzed by GC/Q-TOF and GC/Q-Orbitrap to compare the performance of the two instrument types for the detection of 46 AAS in human urine. The quantitation of endogenous anabolic steroids and the ability of the two analytical platforms to comply with the requirements for testing as part of the WADA Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) were also assessed. Results: The data presented show that the analytical performance for both instruments complies with the WADA specifications. The limits of detection (LODs) for both instruments are well below the WADA 50% Minimum Required Performance Levels. The mass errors in the current study for the GC/Q-Orbitrap platform are lower than those obtained for the GC/Q-TOF instrument. Conclusions: The data presented herein proved that both molecular profiling platforms can be used for antidoping screening. The mass accuracies are excellent in both instruments; however, the GC/Q-Orbitrap performs better as it provides higher resolution than the GC/Q-TOF platform.

LanguageEnglish
Pages2055-2064
JournalRapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry
Volume32
Issue number23
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Dec 2018

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Gas chromatography
Mass spectrometry
Steroids
Doping (additives)
Screening
Testing
Testosterone Congeners
Enzymatic hydrolysis
Liquids
Derivatives
Specifications
Pharmaceutical Preparations

Cite this

@article{8671188af01f48ae93deb3aa6deea070,
title = "Comparison of gas chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight and quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometry in anti-doping analysis: I. Detection of anabolic-androgenic steroids",
abstract = "Rationale: The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) encourages drug-testing laboratories to develop screening methods that can detect as many doping substances as possible in urine. The use of full-scan high-resolution acquisition (FS/HR) with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for the detection of known and unknown trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) provides anti-doping testing bodies with a new analytical tool. Methods: The AAS were extracted from urine samples by generic liquid–liquid extraction, after enzymatic hydrolysis, and TMS derivatization. The extracted urine was analyzed by GC/Q-TOF and GC/Q-Orbitrap to compare the performance of the two instrument types for the detection of 46 AAS in human urine. The quantitation of endogenous anabolic steroids and the ability of the two analytical platforms to comply with the requirements for testing as part of the WADA Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) were also assessed. Results: The data presented show that the analytical performance for both instruments complies with the WADA specifications. The limits of detection (LODs) for both instruments are well below the WADA 50{\%} Minimum Required Performance Levels. The mass errors in the current study for the GC/Q-Orbitrap platform are lower than those obtained for the GC/Q-TOF instrument. Conclusions: The data presented herein proved that both molecular profiling platforms can be used for antidoping screening. The mass accuracies are excellent in both instruments; however, the GC/Q-Orbitrap performs better as it provides higher resolution than the GC/Q-TOF platform.",
author = "Wadha Abushareeda and Marc Tienstra and Arjen Lommen and Marco Blokland and Saskia Sterk and Suhail Kraiem and Peter Horvatovich and Michel Nielen and Muhammad Al-Maadheed and Costas Georgakopoulos",
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Comparison of gas chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight and quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometry in anti-doping analysis : I. Detection of anabolic-androgenic steroids. / Abushareeda, Wadha; Tienstra, Marc; Lommen, Arjen; Blokland, Marco; Sterk, Saskia; Kraiem, Suhail; Horvatovich, Peter; Nielen, Michel; Al-Maadheed, Muhammad; Georgakopoulos, Costas.

In: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, Vol. 32, No. 23, 15.12.2018, p. 2055-2064.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Comparison of gas chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight and quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometry in anti-doping analysis

T2 - Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry

AU - Abushareeda, Wadha

AU - Tienstra, Marc

AU - Lommen, Arjen

AU - Blokland, Marco

AU - Sterk, Saskia

AU - Kraiem, Suhail

AU - Horvatovich, Peter

AU - Nielen, Michel

AU - Al-Maadheed, Muhammad

AU - Georgakopoulos, Costas

PY - 2018/12/15

Y1 - 2018/12/15

N2 - Rationale: The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) encourages drug-testing laboratories to develop screening methods that can detect as many doping substances as possible in urine. The use of full-scan high-resolution acquisition (FS/HR) with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for the detection of known and unknown trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) provides anti-doping testing bodies with a new analytical tool. Methods: The AAS were extracted from urine samples by generic liquid–liquid extraction, after enzymatic hydrolysis, and TMS derivatization. The extracted urine was analyzed by GC/Q-TOF and GC/Q-Orbitrap to compare the performance of the two instrument types for the detection of 46 AAS in human urine. The quantitation of endogenous anabolic steroids and the ability of the two analytical platforms to comply with the requirements for testing as part of the WADA Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) were also assessed. Results: The data presented show that the analytical performance for both instruments complies with the WADA specifications. The limits of detection (LODs) for both instruments are well below the WADA 50% Minimum Required Performance Levels. The mass errors in the current study for the GC/Q-Orbitrap platform are lower than those obtained for the GC/Q-TOF instrument. Conclusions: The data presented herein proved that both molecular profiling platforms can be used for antidoping screening. The mass accuracies are excellent in both instruments; however, the GC/Q-Orbitrap performs better as it provides higher resolution than the GC/Q-TOF platform.

AB - Rationale: The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) encourages drug-testing laboratories to develop screening methods that can detect as many doping substances as possible in urine. The use of full-scan high-resolution acquisition (FS/HR) with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for the detection of known and unknown trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) provides anti-doping testing bodies with a new analytical tool. Methods: The AAS were extracted from urine samples by generic liquid–liquid extraction, after enzymatic hydrolysis, and TMS derivatization. The extracted urine was analyzed by GC/Q-TOF and GC/Q-Orbitrap to compare the performance of the two instrument types for the detection of 46 AAS in human urine. The quantitation of endogenous anabolic steroids and the ability of the two analytical platforms to comply with the requirements for testing as part of the WADA Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) were also assessed. Results: The data presented show that the analytical performance for both instruments complies with the WADA specifications. The limits of detection (LODs) for both instruments are well below the WADA 50% Minimum Required Performance Levels. The mass errors in the current study for the GC/Q-Orbitrap platform are lower than those obtained for the GC/Q-TOF instrument. Conclusions: The data presented herein proved that both molecular profiling platforms can be used for antidoping screening. The mass accuracies are excellent in both instruments; however, the GC/Q-Orbitrap performs better as it provides higher resolution than the GC/Q-TOF platform.

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DO - 10.1002/rcm.8281

M3 - Article

VL - 32

SP - 2055

EP - 2064

JO - Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry

JF - Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry

SN - 0951-4198

IS - 23

ER -