The aims of the study were (1) to compare oral physiology, anatomy and food oral processing behavior of consumers by age (Chinese young adults vs Chinese older adults) and by ethnicity (Chinese (Asian) vs. Dutch (Caucasian)) and (2) to explore relationships between oral physiology, anatomy and food oral processing behavior of Chinese consumers. Oral physiology (mastication performance, saliva flow rate and dental status) and anatomy (volume of oral cavity, tongue dimensions, facial anthropometry, height and weight) were determined in Chinese (Asian) young adults (n = 32; 18–30 yrs) and Chinese (Asian) older adults (n = 32; 60–85 yrs) and compared to previously determined oral physiology and anatomy of Dutch (Caucasian) young adults (n = 32; 18–30 yrs) and Dutch (Caucasian) older adults (n = 32; 65–85 yrs). Oral processing behavior (consumption time, chews per bite, bite size, eating rate) of solid foods (cooked carrot, sausage and tofu-gan) was quantified using video recordings. Regarding the effect of age on physiology, anatomy and food oral processing behavior, Chinese (Asian) older adults consumed all foods with lower eating rates compared to Chinese (Asian) young adults probably due to changes in oral physiology and anatomy. Regarding the effect of ethnicity on oral physiology, anatomy and food oral processing behavior, Chinese (Asians) had lower percentages of normal occlusion, slightly wider and shorter tongues, lower head height:width ratio and lower BMI compared to Dutch (Caucasians). Overall, Chinese adults displayed similar food oral processing behavior compared to Dutch adults. Consumption time, chews per bite and bite size did not differ between Chinese and Dutch adults. Only a small difference in eating rate were observed between these groups. Body weight and number of teeth were the physiological and anatomical parameters that related the strongest with oral processing behavior of solid foods. We conclude that age and ethnicity impact oral physiology, anatomy and oral processing behavior of solid foods. Oral physiology and anatomy only partially explain the variation in oral processing behavior of solid foods in consumer groups differing in ethnicity and age. Other factors such as culture and consumption habits are suggested to have a stronger influence on oral processing behavior.