Comparing Filtering Techniques for Removing Vegetation from UAV-Based Photogrammetric Point Clouds

N.S. Anders, J.R. Pereira Valente, R.J.H. Masselink, S.D. Keesstra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are 3D representations of the Earth’s surface and have numerous applications in geomorphology, hydrology and ecology. Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry using photographs obtained by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been increasingly used for obtaining high resolution DEMs. These DEMs are interpolated from point clouds representing entire landscapes, including points of terrain, vegetation and infrastructure. Up to date, there has not been any study clearly comparing different algorithms for filtering of vegetation. The objective in this study was, therefore, to assess the performance of various vegetation filter algorithms for SfM-obtained point clouds. The comparison was done for a Mediterranean area in Murcia, Spain with heterogeneous vegetation cover. The filter methods that were compared were: color-based filtering using an excessive greenness vegetation index (VI), Triangulated Irregular Networks (TIN) densification from LAStools, the standard method in Agisoft Photoscan (PS), iterative surface lowering (ISL), and a combination of iterative surface lowering and the VI method (ISL_VI). Results showed that for bare areas there was little to no difference between the filtering methods, which is to be expected because there is little to no vegetation present to filter. For areas with shrubs and trees, the ISL_VI and TIN method performed best. These results show that different filtering techniques have various degrees of success in different use cases. A default filter in commercial software such as Photoscan may not always be the best way to remove unwanted vegetation from a point cloud, but instead alternative methods such as a TIN densification algorithm should be used to obtain a vegetation-less Digital Terrain Model (DTM).
Original languageEnglish
Article number61
JournalDrones
Volume3
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 30 Jul 2019

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triangulated irregular network
vegetation
vegetation index
filter
digital elevation model
index method
digital terrain model
photogrammetry
vegetation cover
geomorphology
photograph
vehicle
hydrology
shrub
infrastructure
method
ecology
software

Keywords

  • : UAV; fixed-wings; low-altitude aerial photography; DTM; vegetation filtering; TIN densification; sparse vegetation

Cite this

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title = "Comparing Filtering Techniques for Removing Vegetation from UAV-Based Photogrammetric Point Clouds",
abstract = "Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are 3D representations of the Earth’s surface and have numerous applications in geomorphology, hydrology and ecology. Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry using photographs obtained by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been increasingly used for obtaining high resolution DEMs. These DEMs are interpolated from point clouds representing entire landscapes, including points of terrain, vegetation and infrastructure. Up to date, there has not been any study clearly comparing different algorithms for filtering of vegetation. The objective in this study was, therefore, to assess the performance of various vegetation filter algorithms for SfM-obtained point clouds. The comparison was done for a Mediterranean area in Murcia, Spain with heterogeneous vegetation cover. The filter methods that were compared were: color-based filtering using an excessive greenness vegetation index (VI), Triangulated Irregular Networks (TIN) densification from LAStools, the standard method in Agisoft Photoscan (PS), iterative surface lowering (ISL), and a combination of iterative surface lowering and the VI method (ISL_VI). Results showed that for bare areas there was little to no difference between the filtering methods, which is to be expected because there is little to no vegetation present to filter. For areas with shrubs and trees, the ISL_VI and TIN method performed best. These results show that different filtering techniques have various degrees of success in different use cases. A default filter in commercial software such as Photoscan may not always be the best way to remove unwanted vegetation from a point cloud, but instead alternative methods such as a TIN densification algorithm should be used to obtain a vegetation-less Digital Terrain Model (DTM).",
keywords = ": UAV; fixed-wings; low-altitude aerial photography; DTM; vegetation filtering; TIN densification; sparse vegetation",
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Comparing Filtering Techniques for Removing Vegetation from UAV-Based Photogrammetric Point Clouds. / Anders, N.S.; Pereira Valente, J.R.; Masselink, R.J.H.; Keesstra, S.D.

In: Drones, Vol. 3, No. 3, 61, 30.07.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Comparing Filtering Techniques for Removing Vegetation from UAV-Based Photogrammetric Point Clouds

AU - Anders, N.S.

AU - Pereira Valente, J.R.

AU - Masselink, R.J.H.

AU - Keesstra, S.D.

PY - 2019/7/30

Y1 - 2019/7/30

N2 - Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are 3D representations of the Earth’s surface and have numerous applications in geomorphology, hydrology and ecology. Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry using photographs obtained by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been increasingly used for obtaining high resolution DEMs. These DEMs are interpolated from point clouds representing entire landscapes, including points of terrain, vegetation and infrastructure. Up to date, there has not been any study clearly comparing different algorithms for filtering of vegetation. The objective in this study was, therefore, to assess the performance of various vegetation filter algorithms for SfM-obtained point clouds. The comparison was done for a Mediterranean area in Murcia, Spain with heterogeneous vegetation cover. The filter methods that were compared were: color-based filtering using an excessive greenness vegetation index (VI), Triangulated Irregular Networks (TIN) densification from LAStools, the standard method in Agisoft Photoscan (PS), iterative surface lowering (ISL), and a combination of iterative surface lowering and the VI method (ISL_VI). Results showed that for bare areas there was little to no difference between the filtering methods, which is to be expected because there is little to no vegetation present to filter. For areas with shrubs and trees, the ISL_VI and TIN method performed best. These results show that different filtering techniques have various degrees of success in different use cases. A default filter in commercial software such as Photoscan may not always be the best way to remove unwanted vegetation from a point cloud, but instead alternative methods such as a TIN densification algorithm should be used to obtain a vegetation-less Digital Terrain Model (DTM).

AB - Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are 3D representations of the Earth’s surface and have numerous applications in geomorphology, hydrology and ecology. Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry using photographs obtained by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been increasingly used for obtaining high resolution DEMs. These DEMs are interpolated from point clouds representing entire landscapes, including points of terrain, vegetation and infrastructure. Up to date, there has not been any study clearly comparing different algorithms for filtering of vegetation. The objective in this study was, therefore, to assess the performance of various vegetation filter algorithms for SfM-obtained point clouds. The comparison was done for a Mediterranean area in Murcia, Spain with heterogeneous vegetation cover. The filter methods that were compared were: color-based filtering using an excessive greenness vegetation index (VI), Triangulated Irregular Networks (TIN) densification from LAStools, the standard method in Agisoft Photoscan (PS), iterative surface lowering (ISL), and a combination of iterative surface lowering and the VI method (ISL_VI). Results showed that for bare areas there was little to no difference between the filtering methods, which is to be expected because there is little to no vegetation present to filter. For areas with shrubs and trees, the ISL_VI and TIN method performed best. These results show that different filtering techniques have various degrees of success in different use cases. A default filter in commercial software such as Photoscan may not always be the best way to remove unwanted vegetation from a point cloud, but instead alternative methods such as a TIN densification algorithm should be used to obtain a vegetation-less Digital Terrain Model (DTM).

KW - : UAV; fixed-wings; low-altitude aerial photography; DTM; vegetation filtering; TIN densification; sparse vegetation

U2 - 10.3390/drones3030061

DO - 10.3390/drones3030061

M3 - Article

VL - 3

JO - Drones

JF - Drones

SN - 2504-446X

IS - 3

M1 - 61

ER -