Comparative in vitro fermentation activity in the canine distal gastrointestinal tract and fermentation kinetics of fiber sources

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Abstract

The current study aimed to evaluate the variation in fermentation activity along the distal canine gastrointestinal tract (GIT, Exp. 1). It also aimed to assess fermentation kinetics and end product profiles of 16 dietary fibers for dog foods using canine fecal inoculum (Exp. 2). For Exp. 1, digesta were collected from the distal ileum, proximal colon, transverse colon, and rectum of 3 adult dogs. Digesta per part of the GIT were pooled for 3 dogs, diluted (1:25, wt/vol), mixed, and filtered for the preparation of inoculum. A fructan, ground soy hulls, and native potato starch were used as substrates and incubated for cumulative gas production measurement as an indicator of the kinetics of fermentation. In addition, fermentation bottles with similar contents were incubated but were allowed to release their gas throughout incubation. Fermentation fluid was sampled at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after initiation of incubation, and short-chain fatty acids and ammonia were measured. Results showed comparable maximal fermentation rates for rectal and proximal colonic inocula (P > 0.05). Production of short-chain fatty acids was least for the ileal and greatest for the rectal inoculum (P <0.05). Therefore, for in vitro studies, fecal microbiota can be used as an inoculum source but may slightly overestimate in vivo fermentation. Experiment 2 evaluated the gas production, fermentation kinetics, and end product profiles at 8 and 72 h of incubation for citrus pectin, 3 fructans, gum arabic, 3 guar gums, pea fiber, peanut hulls, soy fiber, sugar beet fiber, sugar beet pectin, sugar beet pulp, wheat fiber, and wheat middlings. Feces of 4 adult dogs were used as an inoculum source. Similar techniques were used as in Exp. 1 except for the dilution factor used (1:10, wt/vol). Among substrates, large variations in fermentation kinetics and end product profiles were noted. Sugar beet pectin, the fructans, and the gums were rapidly fermentable, indicated by a greater maximal rate of gas production (Rmax) compared with all other substrates (P <0.05), whereas peanut hulls and wheat fiber were poorly fermentable, indicated by the least amount of gas produced (P <0.05). Sugar beet fiber, sugar beet pulp, soy fiber, and wheat middlings were moderately fermentable with a low Rmax. Citrus pectin and pea fiber showed a similar low Rmax, but time at which this occurred was later compared with sugar beet fiber, sugar beet pulp, soy fiber, and wheat middlings (P <0.05). Results of this study can be used to formulate canine diets that stimulate dietary fiber fermentation along the distal GIT that may optimize GIT health and stimulate the level of satiety in dogs
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2979-2989
JournalJournal of Animal Science
Volume86
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2008

Keywords

  • chain fatty-acids
  • dietary fiber
  • intestinal microflora
  • fecal inoculum
  • gas-production
  • nonstarch polysaccharides
  • microbial activity
  • feed ingredients
  • detergent fiber
  • healthy dogs

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