Comparative genomics among cyst nematodes reveals distinct evolutionary histories among effector families and an irregular distribution of effector-associated promoter motifs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Potato cyst nematodes (PCNs), an umbrella term used for two species, Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis, belong worldwide to the most harmful pathogens of potato. Pathotype-specific host plant resistances are essential for PCN control. However, the poor delineation of G. pallida pathotypes has hampered the efficient use of available host plant resistances. Long-read sequencing technology allowed us to generate a new reference genome of G. pallida population D383 and, as compared to the current reference, the new genome assembly is 42 times less fragmented. For comparison of diversification patterns of six effector families between G. pallida and G. rostochiensis, an additional reference genome was generated for an outgroup, the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii (IRS population). Large evolutionary contrasts in effector family topologies were observed. While VAPs (venom allergen-like proteins) diversified before the split between the three cyst nematode species, the families GLAND5 and GLAND13 only expanded in PCNs after their separation from the genus Heterodera. Although DNA motifs in the promoter regions thought to be involved in the orchestration of effector expression (“DOG boxes”) were present in all three cyst nematode species, their presence is not a necessity for dorsal gland-produced effectors. Notably, DOG box dosage was only loosely correlated with the expression level of individual effector variants. Comparison of the G. pallida genome with those of two other cyst nematodes underlined the fundamental differences in evolutionary history between effector families. Resequencing of PCN populations with different virulence characteristics will allow for the linking of these characteristics to the composition of the effector repertoire as well as for the mapping of PCN diversification patterns resulting from extreme anthropogenic range expansion.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-15
JournalMolecular Ecology
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2022

Keywords

  • cyst nematodes
  • DOG box
  • Globodera
  • Heterodera
  • nematode effectors

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Comparative genomics among cyst nematodes reveals distinct evolutionary histories among effector families and an irregular distribution of effector-associated promoter motifs'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this