The world over, neoliberal modes of conservation are hybridising with, or even replacing, other forms of conservation. Under the banner of 'win-win' policies, planners actively work to commoditize natural resources and the social relations that determine the use and conservation of these resources. While these general processes seem to hold sway globally, it is crucial not to lose sight of the context specific ways in which neo-liberalism influences conservation practice and local outcomes. The paper examines how neo-liberalism's global pervasiveness becomes manifest across different levels and scales in South Africa and the Philippines. The conclusion suggests that as a result of these neoliberal pressures, emphasis is shifting from local constructions of 'nature' by communities to what the environment should mean for communities in terms of commodified resources and growing capitalist markets.
- South Africa