Routine use of antibiotics in livestock animals strongly contributed to the creation of multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium strains (STM). Vaccination is an alternative to the use of antibiotics but often suffers from low efficacy. The present study investigated whether long-chain inulin (lcITF) and Lactobacillus acidophilus W37 (LaW37) can support vaccination efficacy against STM and if the interventions influence possible gut microbiota changes. Piglets received daily supplementation until sacrifice. Animals were vaccinated on day 25 after birth, one day after weaning, and were challenged with STM on days 52–54. Dietary intervention with lcITF/LaW37 enhanced vaccination efficacy by 2-fold during challenge and resulted in higher relative abundance of Prevotellaceae and lower relative abundance of Lactobacillaceae in faeces. Although strongest microbial effects were observed post STM challenge on day 55, transient effects of the lcITF/LaW37 intervention were also detected on day 10 after birth, and post-weaning on day 30 where increased relative abundance of faecal lactobacilli was correlated with higher faecal consistency. LcITF treatment increased post-weaning feed efficiency and faecal consistency but did not support vaccination efficacy. Vaccination in immune-immature young animals can be enhanced with functional additives which can simultaneously promote health in an ingredient-dependent fashion.