In this study, the effects of texture modification and aroma-induced sweetness enhancement were systematically investigated in apple-flavored semi-solid Na-caseinate gels. Gels containing apple juice as a basic flavor were developed differing in stiffness, brittleness and serum release (texture modification), aroma, and sugar concentration (flavor modification). In a full factorial design (2 x 2 x 2), eight samples were evaluated by a sensory panel on ten attributes (five texture, five flavor). Sweetness was enhanced significantly by modification of texture, aroma, and sugar concentration. Texture modification was found to be by far the greatest contributor to overall sweetness. In comparison to texture modifications, aroma modification and changes of sugar concentration resulted only in small sweetness enhancement. When texture and aroma modifications are combined, a small additive effect of aroma modification on sweetness enhancement was found in addition to the sweetness enhancement caused by texture modification. This suggests that the relationship between texture (modification) and flavor (modification) and sweetness is additive in a nonlinear manner. It can be concluded that texture modification is a valid tool to enhance taste intensity. Hence, texture modification can compensate for a loss of sweet taste intensity induced by sugar reduction, while aroma-induced sweetness enhancement can contribute to further taste enhancement in order to develop healthier products.
- sensory perception
- flavor release
- solution viscosity
Knoop, J. E., Sala, G., Smit, G., & Stieger, M. A. (2013). Combinatory Effects of Texture and Aroma Modification on Taste Perception of Model Gels. Chemosensory Perception, 6(2), 60-69. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12078-013-9141-4