Urban ponds provide the most important public contact with surface waters, implying that good water quality is crucial to the quality of urban life. Three eutrophic urban ponds in the south of The Netherlands with a long history of eutrophication-related nuisance were studied and subjected to mitigating measures. The external nutrient load from a mixed sewer overflow to one of the ponds had already been dismantled prior to the study, in a second pond it was dismantled during, while in the third pond the major nutrient source (stormwater run-off from impervious surfaces) was left untouched. In order to rehabilitate the ponds, all were dredged to reduce the internal loading, the fish biomass was reduced, the banks were softened, macrophytes were planted, users were advised to minimize the feeding of the fish and waterfowl, and the external nutrient load was reduced in two of the ponds. The two ponds in which the major external load was reduced showed strongly improved water quality after the additional in-pond measures. In contrast, the pond with ongoing external loading from stormwater run-off showed only marginally improved water quality. This study underpins that stormwater run-off can be polluting and that mitigating measures should only be implemented when the system analysis has revealed their feasibility.