Colonization of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in chickens and humans in southern Vietnam

Nguyen Vinh Trung, Hoang Ngoc Nhung, Juan J. Carrique-Mas, Ho Huynh Mai, Ha Thanh Tuyen, James Campbell, Nguyen Thi Nhung, Pham Van Minh, Jaap A. Wagenaar, Nguyen Thi Nhu Mai, Thai Quoc Hieu, Constance Schultsz, Ngo Thi Hoa

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Abstract

Background: Enteroaggregative (EAEC) and Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a major cause of diarrhea worldwide. E. coli carrying both virulence factors characteristic for EAEC and STEC and producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase caused severe and protracted disease during an outbreak of E. coli O104:H4 in Europe in 2011. We assessed the opportunities for E. coli carrying the aggR and stx genes to emerge in 'backyard' farms in south-east Asia. Results: Faecal samples collected from 204 chicken farms; 204 farmers and 306 age- and gender-matched individuals not exposed to poultry farming were plated on MacConkey agar plates with and without antimicrobials being supplemented. Sweep samples obtained from MacConkey agar plates without supplemented antimicrobials were screened by multiplex PCR for the detection of the stx1, stx2 and aggR genes. One chicken farm sample each (0.5 %) contained the stx1 and the aggR gene. Eleven (2.4 %) human faecal samples contained the stx1 gene, 2 samples (0.4 %) contained stx2 gene, and 31 (6.8 %) contained the aggR gene. From 46 PCR-positive samples, 205 E. coli isolates were tested for the presence of stx1, stx2, aggR, wzx O104 and fliC H4 genes. None of the isolates simultaneously contained the four genetic markers associated with E. coli O104:H4 epidemic strain (aggR, stx2, wzx O104 and fliC H4 ). Of 34 EAEC, 64.7 % were resistant to 3rd-generation cephalosporins. Conclusion: These results indicate that in southern Vietnam, the human population is a more likely reservoir of aggR and stx gene carrying E. coli than the chicken population. However, conditions for transmission of isolates and/or genes between human and animal reservoirs resulting in the emergence of highly virulent E. coli strains are still favorable, given the nature of'backyard' farms in Vietnam.

Original languageEnglish
Article number208
JournalBMC Microbiology
Volume16
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Fingerprint

Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli
Vietnam
Chickens
Escherichia coli
Genes
Agar
Far East
Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction
Virulence Factors
Cephalosporins
beta-Lactamases
Poultry
Agriculture
Genetic Markers
Population
Disease Outbreaks
Diarrhea
Polymerase Chain Reaction

Keywords

  • Chicken
  • E. coli
  • EAEC
  • Humans
  • STEC
  • Vietnam

Cite this

Trung, N. V., Nhung, H. N., Carrique-Mas, J. J., Mai, H. H., Tuyen, H. T., Campbell, J., ... Hoa, N. T. (2016). Colonization of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in chickens and humans in southern Vietnam. BMC Microbiology, 16(1), [208]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12866-016-0827-z
Trung, Nguyen Vinh ; Nhung, Hoang Ngoc ; Carrique-Mas, Juan J. ; Mai, Ho Huynh ; Tuyen, Ha Thanh ; Campbell, James ; Nhung, Nguyen Thi ; Van Minh, Pham ; Wagenaar, Jaap A. ; Mai, Nguyen Thi Nhu ; Hieu, Thai Quoc ; Schultsz, Constance ; Hoa, Ngo Thi. / Colonization of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in chickens and humans in southern Vietnam. In: BMC Microbiology. 2016 ; Vol. 16, No. 1.
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title = "Colonization of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in chickens and humans in southern Vietnam",
abstract = "Background: Enteroaggregative (EAEC) and Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a major cause of diarrhea worldwide. E. coli carrying both virulence factors characteristic for EAEC and STEC and producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase caused severe and protracted disease during an outbreak of E. coli O104:H4 in Europe in 2011. We assessed the opportunities for E. coli carrying the aggR and stx genes to emerge in 'backyard' farms in south-east Asia. Results: Faecal samples collected from 204 chicken farms; 204 farmers and 306 age- and gender-matched individuals not exposed to poultry farming were plated on MacConkey agar plates with and without antimicrobials being supplemented. Sweep samples obtained from MacConkey agar plates without supplemented antimicrobials were screened by multiplex PCR for the detection of the stx1, stx2 and aggR genes. One chicken farm sample each (0.5 {\%}) contained the stx1 and the aggR gene. Eleven (2.4 {\%}) human faecal samples contained the stx1 gene, 2 samples (0.4 {\%}) contained stx2 gene, and 31 (6.8 {\%}) contained the aggR gene. From 46 PCR-positive samples, 205 E. coli isolates were tested for the presence of stx1, stx2, aggR, wzx O104 and fliC H4 genes. None of the isolates simultaneously contained the four genetic markers associated with E. coli O104:H4 epidemic strain (aggR, stx2, wzx O104 and fliC H4 ). Of 34 EAEC, 64.7 {\%} were resistant to 3rd-generation cephalosporins. Conclusion: These results indicate that in southern Vietnam, the human population is a more likely reservoir of aggR and stx gene carrying E. coli than the chicken population. However, conditions for transmission of isolates and/or genes between human and animal reservoirs resulting in the emergence of highly virulent E. coli strains are still favorable, given the nature of'backyard' farms in Vietnam.",
keywords = "Chicken, E. coli, EAEC, Humans, STEC, Vietnam",
author = "Trung, {Nguyen Vinh} and Nhung, {Hoang Ngoc} and Carrique-Mas, {Juan J.} and Mai, {Ho Huynh} and Tuyen, {Ha Thanh} and James Campbell and Nhung, {Nguyen Thi} and {Van Minh}, Pham and Wagenaar, {Jaap A.} and Mai, {Nguyen Thi Nhu} and Hieu, {Thai Quoc} and Constance Schultsz and Hoa, {Ngo Thi}",
year = "2016",
doi = "10.1186/s12866-016-0827-z",
language = "English",
volume = "16",
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issn = "1471-2180",
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Trung, NV, Nhung, HN, Carrique-Mas, JJ, Mai, HH, Tuyen, HT, Campbell, J, Nhung, NT, Van Minh, P, Wagenaar, JA, Mai, NTN, Hieu, TQ, Schultsz, C & Hoa, NT 2016, 'Colonization of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in chickens and humans in southern Vietnam' BMC Microbiology, vol. 16, no. 1, 208. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12866-016-0827-z

Colonization of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in chickens and humans in southern Vietnam. / Trung, Nguyen Vinh; Nhung, Hoang Ngoc; Carrique-Mas, Juan J.; Mai, Ho Huynh; Tuyen, Ha Thanh; Campbell, James; Nhung, Nguyen Thi; Van Minh, Pham; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Mai, Nguyen Thi Nhu; Hieu, Thai Quoc; Schultsz, Constance; Hoa, Ngo Thi.

In: BMC Microbiology, Vol. 16, No. 1, 208, 2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Colonization of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in chickens and humans in southern Vietnam

AU - Trung, Nguyen Vinh

AU - Nhung, Hoang Ngoc

AU - Carrique-Mas, Juan J.

AU - Mai, Ho Huynh

AU - Tuyen, Ha Thanh

AU - Campbell, James

AU - Nhung, Nguyen Thi

AU - Van Minh, Pham

AU - Wagenaar, Jaap A.

AU - Mai, Nguyen Thi Nhu

AU - Hieu, Thai Quoc

AU - Schultsz, Constance

AU - Hoa, Ngo Thi

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - Background: Enteroaggregative (EAEC) and Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a major cause of diarrhea worldwide. E. coli carrying both virulence factors characteristic for EAEC and STEC and producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase caused severe and protracted disease during an outbreak of E. coli O104:H4 in Europe in 2011. We assessed the opportunities for E. coli carrying the aggR and stx genes to emerge in 'backyard' farms in south-east Asia. Results: Faecal samples collected from 204 chicken farms; 204 farmers and 306 age- and gender-matched individuals not exposed to poultry farming were plated on MacConkey agar plates with and without antimicrobials being supplemented. Sweep samples obtained from MacConkey agar plates without supplemented antimicrobials were screened by multiplex PCR for the detection of the stx1, stx2 and aggR genes. One chicken farm sample each (0.5 %) contained the stx1 and the aggR gene. Eleven (2.4 %) human faecal samples contained the stx1 gene, 2 samples (0.4 %) contained stx2 gene, and 31 (6.8 %) contained the aggR gene. From 46 PCR-positive samples, 205 E. coli isolates were tested for the presence of stx1, stx2, aggR, wzx O104 and fliC H4 genes. None of the isolates simultaneously contained the four genetic markers associated with E. coli O104:H4 epidemic strain (aggR, stx2, wzx O104 and fliC H4 ). Of 34 EAEC, 64.7 % were resistant to 3rd-generation cephalosporins. Conclusion: These results indicate that in southern Vietnam, the human population is a more likely reservoir of aggR and stx gene carrying E. coli than the chicken population. However, conditions for transmission of isolates and/or genes between human and animal reservoirs resulting in the emergence of highly virulent E. coli strains are still favorable, given the nature of'backyard' farms in Vietnam.

AB - Background: Enteroaggregative (EAEC) and Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a major cause of diarrhea worldwide. E. coli carrying both virulence factors characteristic for EAEC and STEC and producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase caused severe and protracted disease during an outbreak of E. coli O104:H4 in Europe in 2011. We assessed the opportunities for E. coli carrying the aggR and stx genes to emerge in 'backyard' farms in south-east Asia. Results: Faecal samples collected from 204 chicken farms; 204 farmers and 306 age- and gender-matched individuals not exposed to poultry farming were plated on MacConkey agar plates with and without antimicrobials being supplemented. Sweep samples obtained from MacConkey agar plates without supplemented antimicrobials were screened by multiplex PCR for the detection of the stx1, stx2 and aggR genes. One chicken farm sample each (0.5 %) contained the stx1 and the aggR gene. Eleven (2.4 %) human faecal samples contained the stx1 gene, 2 samples (0.4 %) contained stx2 gene, and 31 (6.8 %) contained the aggR gene. From 46 PCR-positive samples, 205 E. coli isolates were tested for the presence of stx1, stx2, aggR, wzx O104 and fliC H4 genes. None of the isolates simultaneously contained the four genetic markers associated with E. coli O104:H4 epidemic strain (aggR, stx2, wzx O104 and fliC H4 ). Of 34 EAEC, 64.7 % were resistant to 3rd-generation cephalosporins. Conclusion: These results indicate that in southern Vietnam, the human population is a more likely reservoir of aggR and stx gene carrying E. coli than the chicken population. However, conditions for transmission of isolates and/or genes between human and animal reservoirs resulting in the emergence of highly virulent E. coli strains are still favorable, given the nature of'backyard' farms in Vietnam.

KW - Chicken

KW - E. coli

KW - EAEC

KW - Humans

KW - STEC

KW - Vietnam

U2 - 10.1186/s12866-016-0827-z

DO - 10.1186/s12866-016-0827-z

M3 - Article

VL - 16

JO - BMC Microbiology

JF - BMC Microbiology

SN - 1471-2180

IS - 1

M1 - 208

ER -