Co-housing of Rift Valley fever virus infected lambs with immunocompetent or immunosuppressed lambs does not result in virus transmission

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Abstract

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is transmitted among susceptible animals by mosquito vectors. Although the virus can be isolated from nasal and oral swabs of infected animals and is known to be highly infectious when administered experimentally via oral or respiratory route, horizontal transmission of the virus is only sporadically reported in literature. We considered that immunosuppression resulting from stressful conditions in the field may increase the susceptibility to horizontally transmitted RVFV. Additionally, we reasoned that horizontal transmission may induce immune responses that could affect the susceptibility of contact-exposed animals to subsequent infection via mosquito vectors. To address these two hypotheses, viremic lambs were brought into contact with sentinel lambs. One group of sentinel lambs was treated with the immunosuppressive synthetic glucocorticosteroid dexamethasone and monitored for signs of disease and presence of virus in the blood and target organs. Another group of contact-exposed sentinel lambs remained untreated for three weeks and was subsequently challenged with RVFV. We found that none of the dexamethasone-treated contact-exposed lambs developed detectable viremia, antibody responses or significant increases in cytokine mRNA levels. Susceptibility of immunocompetent lambs to RVFV infection was not influenced by previous contact-exposure. Our results are discussed in light of previous findings.

Original languageEnglish
Article number287
JournalFrontiers in Microbiology
Volume7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Fingerprint

Rift Valley fever virus
Viruses
Virus Diseases
Dexamethasone
Viremia
Immunosuppressive Agents
Nose
Immunosuppression
Antibody Formation
Cytokines
Messenger RNA
Infection
cyhalothrin

Keywords

  • Contact-exposure
  • Epidemiology
  • Horizontal transmission
  • Rift Valley fever virus
  • Risk assessment
  • Transmission

Cite this

@article{21f509c91b6d4150a253dfa42a30720e,
title = "Co-housing of Rift Valley fever virus infected lambs with immunocompetent or immunosuppressed lambs does not result in virus transmission",
abstract = "Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is transmitted among susceptible animals by mosquito vectors. Although the virus can be isolated from nasal and oral swabs of infected animals and is known to be highly infectious when administered experimentally via oral or respiratory route, horizontal transmission of the virus is only sporadically reported in literature. We considered that immunosuppression resulting from stressful conditions in the field may increase the susceptibility to horizontally transmitted RVFV. Additionally, we reasoned that horizontal transmission may induce immune responses that could affect the susceptibility of contact-exposed animals to subsequent infection via mosquito vectors. To address these two hypotheses, viremic lambs were brought into contact with sentinel lambs. One group of sentinel lambs was treated with the immunosuppressive synthetic glucocorticosteroid dexamethasone and monitored for signs of disease and presence of virus in the blood and target organs. Another group of contact-exposed sentinel lambs remained untreated for three weeks and was subsequently challenged with RVFV. We found that none of the dexamethasone-treated contact-exposed lambs developed detectable viremia, antibody responses or significant increases in cytokine mRNA levels. Susceptibility of immunocompetent lambs to RVFV infection was not influenced by previous contact-exposure. Our results are discussed in light of previous findings.",
keywords = "Contact-exposure, Epidemiology, Horizontal transmission, Rift Valley fever virus, Risk assessment, Transmission",
author = "{Wichgers Schreur}, {Paul J.} and {Van Keulen}, Lucien and Jet Kant and Nadia Oreshkova and Moormann, {Rob J.M.} and Jeroen Kortekaas",
year = "2016",
doi = "10.3389/fmicb.2016.00287",
language = "English",
volume = "7",
journal = "Frontiers in Microbiology",
issn = "1664-302X",
publisher = "Frontiers",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Co-housing of Rift Valley fever virus infected lambs with immunocompetent or immunosuppressed lambs does not result in virus transmission

AU - Wichgers Schreur, Paul J.

AU - Van Keulen, Lucien

AU - Kant, Jet

AU - Oreshkova, Nadia

AU - Moormann, Rob J.M.

AU - Kortekaas, Jeroen

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is transmitted among susceptible animals by mosquito vectors. Although the virus can be isolated from nasal and oral swabs of infected animals and is known to be highly infectious when administered experimentally via oral or respiratory route, horizontal transmission of the virus is only sporadically reported in literature. We considered that immunosuppression resulting from stressful conditions in the field may increase the susceptibility to horizontally transmitted RVFV. Additionally, we reasoned that horizontal transmission may induce immune responses that could affect the susceptibility of contact-exposed animals to subsequent infection via mosquito vectors. To address these two hypotheses, viremic lambs were brought into contact with sentinel lambs. One group of sentinel lambs was treated with the immunosuppressive synthetic glucocorticosteroid dexamethasone and monitored for signs of disease and presence of virus in the blood and target organs. Another group of contact-exposed sentinel lambs remained untreated for three weeks and was subsequently challenged with RVFV. We found that none of the dexamethasone-treated contact-exposed lambs developed detectable viremia, antibody responses or significant increases in cytokine mRNA levels. Susceptibility of immunocompetent lambs to RVFV infection was not influenced by previous contact-exposure. Our results are discussed in light of previous findings.

AB - Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is transmitted among susceptible animals by mosquito vectors. Although the virus can be isolated from nasal and oral swabs of infected animals and is known to be highly infectious when administered experimentally via oral or respiratory route, horizontal transmission of the virus is only sporadically reported in literature. We considered that immunosuppression resulting from stressful conditions in the field may increase the susceptibility to horizontally transmitted RVFV. Additionally, we reasoned that horizontal transmission may induce immune responses that could affect the susceptibility of contact-exposed animals to subsequent infection via mosquito vectors. To address these two hypotheses, viremic lambs were brought into contact with sentinel lambs. One group of sentinel lambs was treated with the immunosuppressive synthetic glucocorticosteroid dexamethasone and monitored for signs of disease and presence of virus in the blood and target organs. Another group of contact-exposed sentinel lambs remained untreated for three weeks and was subsequently challenged with RVFV. We found that none of the dexamethasone-treated contact-exposed lambs developed detectable viremia, antibody responses or significant increases in cytokine mRNA levels. Susceptibility of immunocompetent lambs to RVFV infection was not influenced by previous contact-exposure. Our results are discussed in light of previous findings.

KW - Contact-exposure

KW - Epidemiology

KW - Horizontal transmission

KW - Rift Valley fever virus

KW - Risk assessment

KW - Transmission

U2 - 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00287

DO - 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00287

M3 - Article

VL - 7

JO - Frontiers in Microbiology

JF - Frontiers in Microbiology

SN - 1664-302X

M1 - 287

ER -