Co-correspondence analysis: a new ordination method to relate two community compositions

C.J.F. ter Braak, A.P. Schaffers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

136 Citations (Scopus)


A new ordination method, called co-correspondence analysis, is developed to relate two types of communities (e.g., a plant community and an animal community) sampled at a common set of sites in a direct way. The method improves the simple, indirect approach of applying correspondence analysis (reciprocal averaging) to the separate species data sets and correlating the resulting ordination axes. Co-correspondence analysis maximizes the weighted covariance between weighted averaged species scores of one community and weighted averaged species scores of the other community. It thus attempts to identify the patterns that are common to both communities. Both a symmetric descriptive and an asymmetric predictive form are developed. The symmetric form relates to co-inertia analysis and the asymmetric, predictive form to partial least-squares regression. In two examples the predictive power of co-correspondence analysis is compared with that of canonical correspondence analyses on syntaxonomic and environmental data. In the first example, carabid beetles in roadside verges are shown to be more closely related to plant species composition than to vegetation structure (biomass, height, roughness, among others), and, in the second example, bryophytes in spring meadows are shown to be more closely related to the species composition of the vascular plants than to the measured water chemistry.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)834-846
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2004


  • partial least-squares
  • canonical correspondence-analysis
  • regression
  • reconstruction
  • biplots
  • diatoms
  • pls
  • ph


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