Climate-Smart Agriculture Policy and (In)Justice for Smallholders in Developing Countries

Ibnu Budiman*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademicpeer-review


This chapter analyzes whether the current policy for climate-smart agriculture meets the demands of climate justice and respects the rights of smallholders, and if not, how it should be amended. The study is based on a literature review and several interviews with climate-smart agriculture actors from diverse backgrounds: (1) consultant or practitioner, (2) farmer, (3) business or entrepreneur, (4) scientist. To examine the climate-smart agriculture concept and its implementation, the following ethical positions are mainly considered: (1) maximalist, (2) minimalist, (3) Pogge´s intermediate position, (4) Nussbaum’s capability approach, (5) Kantian, (t) altruism. This study found that the current climate-smart agriculture approaches are not fairly implemented, due to the unjust sharing of benefits of income and burdens of emission reduction costs, among smallholders and big industries. According to the principles of climate justice, this sharing proportion should be equally distributed based on an individual’s capacities and poverty should also be taken into consideration.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationResearch Anthology on Environmental and Societal Impacts of Climate Change
PublisherIGI Global
Number of pages17
ISBN (Electronic)9781668436875
ISBN (Print)9781668436868
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2021


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