Climate change and bathing water quality

R.M.M. Roijackers, M.F.L.L.W. Lürling

Research output: Book/ReportReportProfessional


In the new European bathing water directive, 2006/7/EG, two microbiological indicators, i.e. intestinal enterococci and Escherichia coli, are used to assess the state of the official outdoor bathing waters. In this directive also cyanobacteria are included, being a cause of insufficient bathing water quality. Climate change will affect bathing water quality with respect to both the number of pathogens and cyanobacteria, as well as their impact on human health. It is to be expected that by 2050, compared to 1990, the winters in The Netherlands will be milder and wetter, the summers will be warmer, with less frequent, but more intensive showers, thus increasing the chance for flooding and the growing season will be longer. It is most probable that these changes in climate will have effects on the health risk for bathing in surface waters. Therefore, a literature study was made to investigate the impact of climate change on bathing water quality and the applicability of the new European bathing water directive for The Netherlands
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationWageningen
PublisherWageningen UR
Number of pages39
Publication statusPublished - 2007


  • water quality
  • surface water
  • swimming
  • water recreation
  • public health
  • eu regulations
  • directives
  • pathogens
  • cyanobacteria
  • climatic change
  • algae
  • netherlands
  • water framework directive
  • surface water quality
  • swimming water

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