Cladosporium fulvum Effectors: Weapons in the Arms Race with Tomato

Pierre J.G.M. de Wit*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

63 Citations (Scopus)


In this review, I recount my personal history. My drive to study host-pathogen interactions was to find alternatives for agrochemicals, which was triggered after reading the book "Silent Spring" by Rachel Carson. I reflect on my research at the Laboratory of Phytopathology at Wageningen University, where I have worked for my entire career on the interaction between Cladosporium fulvum and tomato, and related gene-for-gene pathosystems. I describe different methods used to identify and sequence avirulence (Avr) genes from the pathogen and resistance (R) genes from the host. The major genes involved in classical gene-for-gene interactions have now been identified, and breeders can produce plants with multiple R genes providing durable and environmentally safe protection against pathogens. In some cases, this might require the use of genetically modified plants when R genes cannot be introduced by classical breeding.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-23
JournalAnnual Review of Phytopathology
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • (hemi)biotroph
  • arms race
  • avirulence genes
  • Cf resistance genes
  • Cladosporium fulvum
  • Dothideomycetes
  • effector genes
  • extracellular pathogens
  • Solanum lycopersicum


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