1. 1. The increase in serum cholesterol after feeding a diet containing 2% (w/w) of cholesterol and 0.5% of cholate for 13 days was 200 and 800% in two hypo- and two hyper-responsive inbred strains of rats, respectively. 2. 2. While remaining on the high-cholesterol, high-cholate diet for longer periods, the level of serum cholesterol dropped in the hyper-responsive strains, and after 8 weeks on the diet one hyper-responsive strain had similar serum cholesterol concentrations as the two hypo-responsive strains. 3. 3. The feeding of a semipurified diet, containing 1% (w/w) of cholesterol and 20% of fat, did not discriminate between the two hypo- and hyper-responsive strains with respect to the response of serum cholesterol. 4. 4. The activities in plasma of the indicators for liver function, aspartate amino transferase and alkaline phosphatase, were significantly increased in all strains after feeding the high-cholesterol, high-cholate diet. Only alkaline phosphatase was increased by the semipurified diet. 5. 5. Evidence is presented that in the four inbred strains of rats the differential cholesterolemic response to the high-cholesterol, high-cholate diet is not related to the baseline serum lipoprotein profile, liver cholesterol accumulation, fecal bile acid excretion, and the total activities and patterns of esterases in serum, liver and small intestine.