Physiology and genetics are tightly interrelated. Understanding the genetic basis of a physiological trait such as the quantum yield of the photosystem II, or photosynthetic responses to environmental changes will benefit the understanding of these processes. By means of chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) imaging, the quantum yield of photosystem II can be determined rapidly, precisely and non-invasively. In this article, the genetic control and variation in the steady-state quantum yield of PSII (ΦPSII) is analyzed for diploid potato plants. Current progress in potato research and breeding is slow due to high levels of heterozygosity and complexity of tetraploid genetics. Diploid potatoes offer the possibility of overcoming this problem and advance research for one of the globally most important staple foods. With the help of a diploid genetic mapping population two genetic loci that were strongly associated with differences in ΦPSII were identified. This is a proof of principle that genetic analysis for ΦPSII can be done on potato. The effects of three different stress conditions that are important in potato cultivation were also tested: salt stress, low temperature and deficiency in the macronutrient phosphate. For the last two stresses, significant decreases in photosynthetic activity could be shown, revealing potential for stress detection with CF based tools. In general, our findings show the potential of high-throughput phenotyping for physiological research and breeding in potato.