Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) in vegetable oils from the Dutch market and the effects of the refining process on their levels

Yang Shen, Kerstin Krätschmer, Toine Bovee, Jochem Louisse, Stefan P.J. van Leeuwen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are of growing public health concern because of their ubiquitous presence in food samples. To get more insight into levels of CPs in vegetable oils from the Dutch market and human exposure via these oils, two series of samples were analysed in this study for the presence of CPs by UHPLC coupled with Q-Exactive Orbitrap mass spectrometry: 1) 39 vegetable oils from local supermarkets; 2) 13 paired crude and refined vegetable oils obtained from a contract refining company. Short chain CPs (SCCPs) and medium chain CPs (MCCPs) were detected in vegetable oils from supermarkets with an overall range from <LOQ to 78 ng/g lipid weight (lw) and <LOQ to 391 ng/g lw, respectively. The tridecane and tetradecane groups dominated in SCCPs and MCCPs, respectively. As regards to paired crude and refined oils from a refining company, a marked decrease in concentrations of both SCCPs and MCCPs were detected by the refining process (average reduction: 82% and 69% for SCCPs and MCCPs, respectively). Based on the data obtained, it can be concluded that CPs with a relatively short carbon chain length and low chlorination degree are more likely to be removed in the refining process. The estimated margins of exposure (MoEs) due to oil consumption alone were all higher than 1000, indicating no health concern from CPs for the Dutch population.

Original languageEnglish
Article number109889
JournalFood Control
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2023


  • Chlorinated paraffins
  • Exposure
  • Homologue group patterns
  • Refined oils
  • Vegetable oils


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