Characterization of the differential coregulator binding signatures of the Retinoic Acid Receptor subtypes upon (ant)agonist action

Ignacio Miro Estruch*, Diana Melchers, René Houtman, Laura H.J. de Haan, John P. Groten, Jochem Louisse, Ivonne M.C.M. Rietjens

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Retinoic Acid Receptor alpha (RARα/NR1B1), Retinoic Acid Receptor beta (RARβ/NR1B2) and Retinoic Acid Receptor gamma (RARγ/NR1B3) are transcription factors regulating gene expression in response to retinoids. Within the RAR genomic pathways, binding of RARs to coregulators is a key intermediate regulatory phase. However, ligand-dependent interactions between the wide variety of coregulators that may be present in a cell and the different RAR subtypes are largely unknown. The aim of this study is to characterize the coregulator binding profiles of RARs in the presence of the pan-agonist all-trans-Retinoic Acid (AtRA); the subtype-selective agonists Am80 (RARα), CD2314 (RARβ) and BMS961 (RARγ); and the antagonist Ro415253. To this end, we used a microarray assay for coregulator-nuclear receptor interactions to assess RAR binding to 154 motifs belonging to > 60 coregulators. The results revealed a high number of ligand-dependent RAR-coregulator interactions among all RAR variants, including many binding events not yet described in literature. Next, this work confirmed a greater ligand-independent activity of RARβ compared to the other RAR subtypes based on both higher basal and lower ligand-driven coregulator binding. Further, several coregulator motifs showed selective binding to a specific RAR subtype. Next, this work showed that subtype-selective agonists can be successfully discriminated by using coregulator binding assays. Finally this study demonstrated the possible applications of a coregulator binding assay as a tool to discriminate between agonistic/antagonistic actions of ligands. The RAR-coregulator interactions found will be of use to direct further studies to better understand the mechanisms driving the eventual actions of retinoids.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1195-1206
JournalBiochimica et Biophysica Acta. Proteins & Proteomics
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • Agonist
  • Antagonist
  • Coregulator
  • Ligand binding domain (LBD)
  • RAR
  • Subtype


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