A new virus species, belonging to the family Potyviridae and capable of infecting most of the soybean cultivars grown in Brazil, was collected in Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and named Soybean yellow shoot virus (SoyYSV). In this study, the complete 9,052-nucleotide genome of SoyYSV was determined and the structural, biological, and molecular properties of the virus were investigated. The SoyYSV genome encoded a single polyprotein that could be subsequently cleaved, generating 11 proteins. The SoyYSV genome shared 49% nucleotide and 36% amino acid sequence identity with Blackberry virus Y. However, the P1 protein of SoyYSV was much smaller and lacked the ALK1 domain characteristic of the genus Brambyvirus. Electron microscopy revealed flexuous filamentous virus particles, 760 to 780 nm in length, and cytoplasmic inclusions typical of those found in plant cells infected with Potyviridae species. In addition to soybean, SoyYSV infected species in the Amaranthaceae, Caricaceae, Fabaceae, and Solanaceae families. Among the most common potyviruses present in Brazil, only SoyYSV induced local necrotic lesions in Carica papaya L. SoyYSV was transmissible by Myzus persicae and Aphis gossypii but lacked the HC-Pro domain required for aphid transmission in other potyviruses. No seed transmission in soybean was observed.