Characterization of immune responses following homologous reinfection of pigs with European subtype 1 and 3 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strains that differ in virulence

Eefke Weesendorp, Norbert Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Hans J. Nauwynck, D.J. Popma-De Graaf, Johanna M.J. Rebel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes significant economic losses to the pork industry worldwide. Vaccination results often in limited protection. Understanding host immune responses elicited by different PRRSV strains could help to develop more efficacious vaccines. In the current study we characterized immunological responses and viral kinetics in pigs after primo infection and homologous challenge of the highly virulent European subtype 3 strain Lena, and the moderate to low virulent subtype 1 strain LV. Eighteen pigs were infected per strain, and 18 non-infected pigs served as control. Post mortem analysis was performed at days 7, 46 and 60 p.i. At day 46, pigs were challenged with the homologous strain. After the first inoculation, pigs infected with Lena developed fever and clinical symptoms, while this was not observed in pigs infected with LV. Virus titres in serum were about 100-fold higher in pigs infected with Lena than in pigs infected with LV. An inflammatory response was observed in pigs after primo infection with Lena with significantly higher levels of IL-12, IL-1β and TNF-α in the bronchoalveolar lavage. IFN-γ ELISPOT assay showed comparable responses between Lena and LV. Neutralizing antibodies were detected earlier in serum of pigs infected with Lena than in pigs infected with LV. After the challenge, a boost in antibody levels in both groups was observed. Challenge infection resulted in both groups in complete protection and sterile immunity, with no viraemia, clinical symptoms or viral RNA in tissues. In conclusion, although there were clear differences in immunological, clinical and virological responses to the primo infection, there were no differences observed in protection against homologous challenge.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)64-74
JournalVeterinary Microbiology
Volume182
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Fingerprint

Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus
Virulence
virulence
Swine
immune response
swine
Infection
infection
signs and symptoms (animals and humans)
pork industry
vaccination
Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay
Viremia
viremia
interleukin-12
interleukin-1
Viral RNA
Bronchoalveolar Lavage
Interleukin-12

Keywords

  • Genetic subtypes
  • Homologous reinfection
  • Immune response
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus
  • Protection

Cite this

@article{bcd3d15306c04899b9896eb3d6fd5d4c,
title = "Characterization of immune responses following homologous reinfection of pigs with European subtype 1 and 3 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strains that differ in virulence",
abstract = "Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes significant economic losses to the pork industry worldwide. Vaccination results often in limited protection. Understanding host immune responses elicited by different PRRSV strains could help to develop more efficacious vaccines. In the current study we characterized immunological responses and viral kinetics in pigs after primo infection and homologous challenge of the highly virulent European subtype 3 strain Lena, and the moderate to low virulent subtype 1 strain LV. Eighteen pigs were infected per strain, and 18 non-infected pigs served as control. Post mortem analysis was performed at days 7, 46 and 60 p.i. At day 46, pigs were challenged with the homologous strain. After the first inoculation, pigs infected with Lena developed fever and clinical symptoms, while this was not observed in pigs infected with LV. Virus titres in serum were about 100-fold higher in pigs infected with Lena than in pigs infected with LV. An inflammatory response was observed in pigs after primo infection with Lena with significantly higher levels of IL-12, IL-1β and TNF-α in the bronchoalveolar lavage. IFN-γ ELISPOT assay showed comparable responses between Lena and LV. Neutralizing antibodies were detected earlier in serum of pigs infected with Lena than in pigs infected with LV. After the challenge, a boost in antibody levels in both groups was observed. Challenge infection resulted in both groups in complete protection and sterile immunity, with no viraemia, clinical symptoms or viral RNA in tissues. In conclusion, although there were clear differences in immunological, clinical and virological responses to the primo infection, there were no differences observed in protection against homologous challenge.",
keywords = "Genetic subtypes, Homologous reinfection, Immune response, Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Protection",
author = "Eefke Weesendorp and Norbert Stockhofe-Zurwieden and Nauwynck, {Hans J.} and {Popma-De Graaf}, D.J. and Rebel, {Johanna M.J.}",
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journal = "Veterinary Microbiology",
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Characterization of immune responses following homologous reinfection of pigs with European subtype 1 and 3 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strains that differ in virulence. / Weesendorp, Eefke; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert; Nauwynck, Hans J.; Popma-De Graaf, D.J.; Rebel, Johanna M.J.

In: Veterinary Microbiology, Vol. 182, 2016, p. 64-74.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Characterization of immune responses following homologous reinfection of pigs with European subtype 1 and 3 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strains that differ in virulence

AU - Weesendorp, Eefke

AU - Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert

AU - Nauwynck, Hans J.

AU - Popma-De Graaf, D.J.

AU - Rebel, Johanna M.J.

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes significant economic losses to the pork industry worldwide. Vaccination results often in limited protection. Understanding host immune responses elicited by different PRRSV strains could help to develop more efficacious vaccines. In the current study we characterized immunological responses and viral kinetics in pigs after primo infection and homologous challenge of the highly virulent European subtype 3 strain Lena, and the moderate to low virulent subtype 1 strain LV. Eighteen pigs were infected per strain, and 18 non-infected pigs served as control. Post mortem analysis was performed at days 7, 46 and 60 p.i. At day 46, pigs were challenged with the homologous strain. After the first inoculation, pigs infected with Lena developed fever and clinical symptoms, while this was not observed in pigs infected with LV. Virus titres in serum were about 100-fold higher in pigs infected with Lena than in pigs infected with LV. An inflammatory response was observed in pigs after primo infection with Lena with significantly higher levels of IL-12, IL-1β and TNF-α in the bronchoalveolar lavage. IFN-γ ELISPOT assay showed comparable responses between Lena and LV. Neutralizing antibodies were detected earlier in serum of pigs infected with Lena than in pigs infected with LV. After the challenge, a boost in antibody levels in both groups was observed. Challenge infection resulted in both groups in complete protection and sterile immunity, with no viraemia, clinical symptoms or viral RNA in tissues. In conclusion, although there were clear differences in immunological, clinical and virological responses to the primo infection, there were no differences observed in protection against homologous challenge.

AB - Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes significant economic losses to the pork industry worldwide. Vaccination results often in limited protection. Understanding host immune responses elicited by different PRRSV strains could help to develop more efficacious vaccines. In the current study we characterized immunological responses and viral kinetics in pigs after primo infection and homologous challenge of the highly virulent European subtype 3 strain Lena, and the moderate to low virulent subtype 1 strain LV. Eighteen pigs were infected per strain, and 18 non-infected pigs served as control. Post mortem analysis was performed at days 7, 46 and 60 p.i. At day 46, pigs were challenged with the homologous strain. After the first inoculation, pigs infected with Lena developed fever and clinical symptoms, while this was not observed in pigs infected with LV. Virus titres in serum were about 100-fold higher in pigs infected with Lena than in pigs infected with LV. An inflammatory response was observed in pigs after primo infection with Lena with significantly higher levels of IL-12, IL-1β and TNF-α in the bronchoalveolar lavage. IFN-γ ELISPOT assay showed comparable responses between Lena and LV. Neutralizing antibodies were detected earlier in serum of pigs infected with Lena than in pigs infected with LV. After the challenge, a boost in antibody levels in both groups was observed. Challenge infection resulted in both groups in complete protection and sterile immunity, with no viraemia, clinical symptoms or viral RNA in tissues. In conclusion, although there were clear differences in immunological, clinical and virological responses to the primo infection, there were no differences observed in protection against homologous challenge.

KW - Genetic subtypes

KW - Homologous reinfection

KW - Immune response

KW - Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

KW - Protection

U2 - 10.1016/j.vetmic.2015.10.033

DO - 10.1016/j.vetmic.2015.10.033

M3 - Article

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SP - 64

EP - 74

JO - Veterinary Microbiology

JF - Veterinary Microbiology

SN - 0378-1135

ER -