Characterization of coloured compounds obtained by enzymatic extraction of bakery products

R.C. Borrelli, C. Mennella, F. Barba, M. Russo, G.L. Russo, K. Krome, H.F. Erbersdobler, V. Faist, V. Fogliano*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

106 Citations (Scopus)


Melanoidins, the brown-colored polymers formed through Maillard type reaction in several heat-treated foods, represent a significant part of our diet, with an average intake of grams per day. Most of the studies on the physiological effects of these compounds have been performed using the water soluble melanoidin fractions. But dietary melanoidins formed on the surface of bakery products are poorly soluble in water as well as in organic solvents. In this work, an enzymatic solubilization procedure was developed on a gluten-glucose model system and it was applied to bread and biscuits. The soluble material obtained was tested for its antioxidant activity, for its effect on phase-I and phase-II xenobiotic enzymes and for potential cytotoxic effects. Soluble melanoidins from model system and biscuits exhibit a strong antioxidant activity and do not show any cytotoxicity on Caco-2 cells. Melanoidins extracted from biscuits was able to inhibit the activity of Phase I (NADPH-cytochrome-c reductase) and Phase II (Glutathione-S-transferase) enzymes, whereas the low molecular weight melanoidins isolated from gluten-glucose model system inhibit the activity of NADPH-cytochrome-c reductase.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1367-1374
Number of pages8
JournalFood and Chemical Toxicology
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • Antioxidants
  • Cytotoxicity
  • Gluten
  • Maillard reaction
  • Melanoidins
  • Phase I and II enzymes
  • Pronase

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