Characterization of ß-Galactosidase Isoforms from Bacillus circulans and Their Contribution to GOS Production

A. Warmerdam, E. Paudel, J. Wanqing, R.M. Boom, A.E.M. Janssen

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A ß-galactosidase preparation from Bacillus circulans consists of four isoforms called ß-gal-A, ß-gal-B, ß-gal-C, and ß-gal-D. These isoforms differ in lactose hydrolysis and galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) synthesis at low substrate concentrations. For this reason, using a selection of the isoforms may be relevant for GOS production, which is typically done at high substrate concentrations. At initial lactose concentrations in between 0.44% and 0.68% (w/w), ß-gal-A showed the least oligosaccharide formation, followed by ß-gal-B and ß-gal-C; most oligosaccharides were formed by ß-gal-D. The differences in behavior were confirmed by studying the thermodynamics of lactose conversion with isothermal titration calorimetry since especially ß-gal-A showed a different profile than the other isoforms. Also during the conversion of allolactose and 4-galactosyllactose at 0.44 % and 0.61 % (w/w), respectively, ß-gal-A and ß-gal-D showed clear differences. In contrast to above findings, the selectivity of the isoforms did hardly differ at an initial lactose concentration of 30 % (w/w), except for a slightly higher production of galactose with ß-gal-A. These differences were hypothesized to be related to the different accessibility of the active sites of the isoforms for different-sized reactants. The initial GOS formation rates of the isoforms indicate that ß-gal-A and ß-gal-B are the best isoforms for GOS production at high lactose concentrations
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)340-358
JournalApplied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • lactose

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