Sanitary constraints of raising turkey in north-west Benin were studied by using a survey and Haemagglutination Inhibition Test (HIT) to detect antibodies of Newcastle Disease (ND) and Avian Influenza (AI). We tested 85 serums from 7- to 24-month-old turkeys raised in 19 farms. ND prevalence rate was 54% but reactions on four sub-types of AI were negative. Mortality rates varied from 55 to 100% for 0–30 day-old flocks; 30% for 1- to 4-month-old; and 15% for older turkeys. Next to ND, probable causes of mortality are Fowl pox, Gumboro disease, scabies, coccidiosis, histomonosis, capillariosis and colibacillosis. Only one farmer who fed and vaccinated the poults, and provided clean housing for them got a lower mortality rate of 11% in turkeys less than 4-month-old. The question remains why most farmers do not apply these simple practices: are they unaware or are the technologies not profitable?