Changing climate-changing pathogens: Toxoplasma gondii in North-Western Europe

B.G. Meerburg, A. Kijlstra

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89 Citations (Scopus)


In this review, we describe the effects of global climate change for one specific pathogen: the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. It is postulated that an increase of T. gondii prevalence in humans can occur in some regions of North-Western Europe as a result of changing environmental conditions. Such a change can be predicted by using Global Climate Change models. We have elaborated such a prediction for one scenario (SRES A1) by using one specific model (CCSR/NRIES) as an example. Next to environmental factors, also anthropogenic factors may contribute to increased prevalence of T. gondii in this region. In order to counter the potential severe consequences of a potential increase resulting from the combination of climatic and anthropogenic factors, there is an urgent need for the development of a human vaccine. Until a vaccine that offers complete protection is developed, the emphasis should be on treatment optimization and prevention.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17-24
JournalParasitology Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2009


  • united-states
  • experimental transmission
  • congenital toxoplasmosis
  • production systems
  • transport hosts
  • drinking-water
  • costa-rica
  • infection
  • cats
  • oocysts


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