Changes in ventilation and locomotion of Gammarus pulex (Crustacea, Amphipoda) in response to low concentrations of pharmaceuticals

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Abstract

Exposure to contaminants below lethal concentrations may affect the performance of organisms, resulting in measurable differences in behavior. We measured the response of the benthic invertebrate Gammarus pulex (Crustacea, Amphipoda) to sublethal concentrations of three pharmaceuticals, fluoxetine, ibuprofen and carbamazepine, and the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Responses in behavior during exposure were analyzed using the multivariate method of Principal Response Curves (PRC). The PRC results show that exposure to low pharmaceutical concentrations (range 1-100 ng/l) resulted in increased ventilation, whereas exposure to control or to high concentrations (1 ¿ g/l-1 mg/L) resulted in increased locomotion. Exposure to CTAB resulted in decreased locomotion and increased ventilation at increasing concentrations. The results of our experiments indicate that increased ventilation can be used as a general sign of stress, but not necessarily an early warning signal for mortality.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)111-120
JournalHuman and Ecological Risk Assessment
Volume15
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009

Keywords

  • sewage-treatment plants
  • fresh-water biomonitor
  • acid-mine drainage
  • behavioral-responses
  • impedance conversion
  • oncorhynchus-mykiss
  • surface waters
  • waste-water
  • toxicity
  • exposure

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