The effects of preconditioning temperature and preconditioning period on the sensitivity of parasitic weed seeds to the synthetic germination stimulant GR24 were studied under laboratory and field conditions. The temperature during preconditioning of Orobanche cumana and Striga hermonthica seeds strongly affected the responsiveness of the seeds to the applied germination stimulant. Preconditioning at an optimal temperature (21degreesC for O. cumana and 30degreesC for S. hermonthica) rapidly released dormancy and increased the sensitivity to GR24 by several orders of magnitude. After reaching maximum sensitivity, prolonged preconditioning rapidly induced secondary dormancy, i.e. decreased sensitivity of O. cumana and S. hermonthica to GR24. The rapid change in sensitivity of preconditioned seeds to germination stimulants during prolonged preconditioning was particularly visible at low concentrations of GR24. GR24 at higher concentrations (0.1 and 1 mg l(-1)) usually induced high germination of both species, regardless of the preconditioning period. The striking similarities between the response of parasitic weed seeds to GR24, described here, and results in the literature on non-parasitic wild plant seeds are discussed. Our results show that parasitic weed seeds are highly sensitive to the germination stimulant for a short period of time only, and then enter into secondary dormancy relatively quickly. The similar germination pattern of S. hermonthica seeds preconditioned for prolonged periods of time under laboratory and field conditions suggests that the mechanism observed is of ecological significance.
- seasonal dormancy patterns
- ethylene biosynthesis