Changes in nutrient composition and diet quality in the first 6 months following bariatric surgery: An observational cohort study

Laura Heusschen*, Agnes Berendsen, Michiel Balvers, Laura Deden, Jeanne de Vries, Eric Hazebroek

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Background
Bariatric surgery (BS) may result in inadequate nutrient intake and poor diet quality, which can lead to nutritional complications. The present study aimed to evaluate changes in macro- and micronutrient composition and diet quality in the first 6 months following BS.
Methods
One hundred seven participants undergoing BS (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: n = 87, sleeve gastrectomy: n = 20) completed 3-day food records before and 6 months after surgery. Changes in energy, macronutrient (carbohydrates, protein, fat, dietary fibre) and micronutrient intake (folate, vitamin B12, vitamin D, calcium, iron) were evaluated. Diet quality was assessed by adherence to the Dutch food-based dietary guidelines.
Results
After BS, we observed a significant decrease in intake of energy and all macro- and micronutrients (p < 0.01 for all), except for calcium (−39.0 ± 404.6 mg; p = 0.32). Overall, nutrient composition slightly changed with an increase in the relative intake of protein (+1.1 ± 4.3 energy percentage [en%]; p = 0.01) and mono- and disaccharides (+4.2 ± 6.4 en%; p < 0.001) post-surgery. Consumption (median [Q1, Q3]) of vegetables (−50 [−120, 6] g day–1), wholegrain products (−38 [−81, −8] g day–1), liquid fats (−5 [−13, 2] g day–1), red meat (−3 [−30, 4] g day–1), processed meat (−32 [−55, 13] g day–1), sodium (−0.7 [−1.1, −0.2] g day–1) and unhealthy food choices (−2.4 [−5.0, 0.6] serves week–1) significantly decreased after BS (p < 0.01 for all).
Conclusions
Our results demonstrate both favourable and unfavourable changes in macro- and micronutrient composition and diet quality in the first 6 months following BS. Insight into these changes can improve dietary counselling in this population. Future research into underlying causes, consequences and long-term changes in dietary intake is needed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)365-376
JournalJournal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics
Volume37
Issue number1
Early online date14 Nov 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2024

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