Changes in iron metabolism during prolonged repeated walking exercise in middle-aged men and women

Rieneke Terink, D. ten Haaf, C.W.G. Bongers, M.G.J. Balvers, R.F. Witkamp, M. Mensink, T.M.H. Eijsvogels, J.M.T. Klein Gunnewiek, M.T.E. Hopman

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Abstract

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of prolonged and repeated exercise on iron metabolism in middle-aged adults and to compare differences between sexes. Methods: 50 male (58.9 ± 9.9 year) and 48 female (50.9 ± 11.2 year) individuals were monitored on 4 consecutive days at which they walked on average 8 h and 44 min per day at a self-determined pace. Blood samples were collected 1 or 2 days prior to the start of the exercise (baseline) and every day immediately post-exercise. Samples were analysed for iron, ferritin, haemoglobin, and haptoglobin concentrations. Results: Plasma iron decreased across days, while ferritin increased across days (both p < 0.001). Haptoglobin showed a decrease (p < 0.001) after the first day and increased over subsequent days (p < 0.001). Haemoglobin did not change after the first day, but increased during subsequent days (p < 0.05). At baseline, 8% of the participants had iron concentrations below minimum reference value (10 µmol/L), this increased to 43% at day 4. There was an interaction between sex and exercise days on iron (p = 0.028), ferritin (p < 0.001) and haemoglobin levels (p = 0.004), but not on haptoglobin levels. Conclusion: This study showed decreases in iron, increases in ferritin, a decrease followed by increases in haptoglobin and no change followed by increases in haemoglobin. This is most likely explained by (foot strike) haemolysis, inflammation, and sweat and urine losses. These processes resulted in iron levels below minimum reference value in a large number of our participants.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2349–2357
JournalEuropean Journal of Applied Physiology
Volume118
Issue number11
Early online date23 Aug 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2018

Fingerprint

Walking
Iron
Exercise
Haptoglobins
Ferritins
Hemoglobins
Reference Values
Sweat
Hemolysis
Sex Characteristics
Foot
Urine
Inflammation

Keywords

  • Fe
  • Hb
  • Hp
  • Repetitive exercise

Cite this

Terink, Rieneke ; ten Haaf, D. ; Bongers, C.W.G. ; Balvers, M.G.J. ; Witkamp, R.F. ; Mensink, M. ; Eijsvogels, T.M.H. ; Klein Gunnewiek, J.M.T. ; Hopman, M.T.E. / Changes in iron metabolism during prolonged repeated walking exercise in middle-aged men and women. In: European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2018 ; Vol. 118, No. 11. pp. 2349–2357.
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abstract = "Purpose: The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of prolonged and repeated exercise on iron metabolism in middle-aged adults and to compare differences between sexes. Methods: 50 male (58.9 ± 9.9 year) and 48 female (50.9 ± 11.2 year) individuals were monitored on 4 consecutive days at which they walked on average 8 h and 44 min per day at a self-determined pace. Blood samples were collected 1 or 2 days prior to the start of the exercise (baseline) and every day immediately post-exercise. Samples were analysed for iron, ferritin, haemoglobin, and haptoglobin concentrations. Results: Plasma iron decreased across days, while ferritin increased across days (both p < 0.001). Haptoglobin showed a decrease (p < 0.001) after the first day and increased over subsequent days (p < 0.001). Haemoglobin did not change after the first day, but increased during subsequent days (p < 0.05). At baseline, 8{\%} of the participants had iron concentrations below minimum reference value (10 µmol/L), this increased to 43{\%} at day 4. There was an interaction between sex and exercise days on iron (p = 0.028), ferritin (p < 0.001) and haemoglobin levels (p = 0.004), but not on haptoglobin levels. Conclusion: This study showed decreases in iron, increases in ferritin, a decrease followed by increases in haptoglobin and no change followed by increases in haemoglobin. This is most likely explained by (foot strike) haemolysis, inflammation, and sweat and urine losses. These processes resulted in iron levels below minimum reference value in a large number of our participants.",
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Changes in iron metabolism during prolonged repeated walking exercise in middle-aged men and women. / Terink, Rieneke; ten Haaf, D.; Bongers, C.W.G.; Balvers, M.G.J.; Witkamp, R.F.; Mensink, M.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Klein Gunnewiek, J.M.T.; Hopman, M.T.E.

In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. 118, No. 11, 11.2018, p. 2349–2357.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Changes in iron metabolism during prolonged repeated walking exercise in middle-aged men and women

AU - Terink, Rieneke

AU - ten Haaf, D.

AU - Bongers, C.W.G.

AU - Balvers, M.G.J.

AU - Witkamp, R.F.

AU - Mensink, M.

AU - Eijsvogels, T.M.H.

AU - Klein Gunnewiek, J.M.T.

AU - Hopman, M.T.E.

PY - 2018/11

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N2 - Purpose: The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of prolonged and repeated exercise on iron metabolism in middle-aged adults and to compare differences between sexes. Methods: 50 male (58.9 ± 9.9 year) and 48 female (50.9 ± 11.2 year) individuals were monitored on 4 consecutive days at which they walked on average 8 h and 44 min per day at a self-determined pace. Blood samples were collected 1 or 2 days prior to the start of the exercise (baseline) and every day immediately post-exercise. Samples were analysed for iron, ferritin, haemoglobin, and haptoglobin concentrations. Results: Plasma iron decreased across days, while ferritin increased across days (both p < 0.001). Haptoglobin showed a decrease (p < 0.001) after the first day and increased over subsequent days (p < 0.001). Haemoglobin did not change after the first day, but increased during subsequent days (p < 0.05). At baseline, 8% of the participants had iron concentrations below minimum reference value (10 µmol/L), this increased to 43% at day 4. There was an interaction between sex and exercise days on iron (p = 0.028), ferritin (p < 0.001) and haemoglobin levels (p = 0.004), but not on haptoglobin levels. Conclusion: This study showed decreases in iron, increases in ferritin, a decrease followed by increases in haptoglobin and no change followed by increases in haemoglobin. This is most likely explained by (foot strike) haemolysis, inflammation, and sweat and urine losses. These processes resulted in iron levels below minimum reference value in a large number of our participants.

AB - Purpose: The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of prolonged and repeated exercise on iron metabolism in middle-aged adults and to compare differences between sexes. Methods: 50 male (58.9 ± 9.9 year) and 48 female (50.9 ± 11.2 year) individuals were monitored on 4 consecutive days at which they walked on average 8 h and 44 min per day at a self-determined pace. Blood samples were collected 1 or 2 days prior to the start of the exercise (baseline) and every day immediately post-exercise. Samples were analysed for iron, ferritin, haemoglobin, and haptoglobin concentrations. Results: Plasma iron decreased across days, while ferritin increased across days (both p < 0.001). Haptoglobin showed a decrease (p < 0.001) after the first day and increased over subsequent days (p < 0.001). Haemoglobin did not change after the first day, but increased during subsequent days (p < 0.05). At baseline, 8% of the participants had iron concentrations below minimum reference value (10 µmol/L), this increased to 43% at day 4. There was an interaction between sex and exercise days on iron (p = 0.028), ferritin (p < 0.001) and haemoglobin levels (p = 0.004), but not on haptoglobin levels. Conclusion: This study showed decreases in iron, increases in ferritin, a decrease followed by increases in haptoglobin and no change followed by increases in haemoglobin. This is most likely explained by (foot strike) haemolysis, inflammation, and sweat and urine losses. These processes resulted in iron levels below minimum reference value in a large number of our participants.

KW - Fe

KW - Hb

KW - Hp

KW - Repetitive exercise

U2 - 10.1007/s00421-018-3961-5

DO - 10.1007/s00421-018-3961-5

M3 - Article

VL - 118

SP - 2349

EP - 2357

JO - European Journal of Applied Physiology

JF - European Journal of Applied Physiology

SN - 1439-6319

IS - 11

ER -