Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection causes a substantial lower-respiratory-tract disease burden in infants, constituting a global priority for vaccine development. We evaluated immunogenicity, safety and efficacy of a chimpanzee adenovirus (ChAd)-based vaccine candidate, ChAd155-RSV, in a bovine RSV (bRSV) challenge model. This model closely reproduces the pathogenesis/clinical manifestations of severe pediatric RSV disease. In seronegative calves, ChAd155-RSV elicits robust neutralizing antibody responses against human RSV. Two doses protect calves from clinical symptoms/lung pathological changes, and reduce nasal/lung virus loads after both a short (4-week) and a long (16-week) interval between last immunization and subsequent bRSV challenge. The one-dose regimen confers near-complete or significant protection after short-term or long-term intervals before challenge, respectively. The presence of pre-existing bRSV-antibodies does not affect short-term efficacy of the two-dose regimen. Immunized calves present no clinical signs of enhanced respiratory disease. Collectively, this supports the development of ChAd155-RSV as an RSV vaccine candidate for infants.