cDNA-AFLP combined with functional analysis reveals novel genes involved in the hypersensitive response

S.H.E.J. Gabriëls, F.L.W. Takken, J.H. Vossen, C.F. de Jong, Q. Liu, S.C.H.J. Turk, L.K. Wachowski, J. Peters, H.M.A. Witsenboer, P.J.G.M. de Wit, M.H.A.J. Joosten

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89 Citations (Scopus)


To identify genes required for the hypersensitive response (HR), we performed expression profiling of tomato plants mounting a synchronized HR, followed by functional analysis of differentially expressed genes. By cDNA-AFLP analysis, the expression profile of tomato plants containing both the Cf-4 resistance gene against Cladosporium fulvum and the matching Avr4 avirulence gene of this fungus was compared with that of control plants. About 1% of the transcript-derived fragments (442 out of 50,000) were derived from a differentially expressed gene. Based on their sequence and expression, 192 fragments, referred to as Avr4-responsive tomato (ART) fragments, were selected for VIGS (virus-induced gene silencing) in Cf-4-transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana. Inoculated plants were analyzed for compromised HR by agroinfiltration of either the C. fulvum Avr4 gene or the Inf1 gene of Phytophthora infestans, which invokes a HR in wild-type N. benthamiana. VIGS using 15 of the ART fragments resulted in a compromised HR, whereas VIGS with fragments of ART genes encoding HSP90, a nuclear GTPase, an L19 ribosomal protein, and most interestingly, a nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat (NB-LRR)-type protein severely suppressed the HR induced both by Avr4 and Inf1. Requirement of an NB-LRR protein (designated NRC1, for NB-LRR protein required for HR-associated cell death 1) for Cf resistance protein function as well as Inf1-mediated HR suggests a convergence of signaling pathways and supports the recent observation that NB-LRR proteins play a role in signal transduction cascades downstream of resistance proteins
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)567-576
JournalMolecular Plant-Microbe Interactions
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2006


  • plant-pathogen interactions
  • programmed cell-death
  • cladosporium-fulvum
  • disease-resistance
  • nicotiana-benthamiana
  • molecular analysis
  • defense responses
  • avirulence gene
  • cf-4 locus
  • protein


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