A general household survey was carried out in the village of Sonoageng in East Java, Indonesia with the aim to assess their socio-economic status, and the crop and livestock production system prevailing in the area. Of the households interviewed (164), 52re landless, 35␘wn land or have a combination of own and shared land, and 12o not own land but have access to land by sharing. Nearly two thirds (65€of the households raise cattle; most of them own animals, 8␛eared shared animals only. The dominant crop was rice; other crops grown were soya bean, groundnut, maize and sugar cane. Nearly half (47€the household income was derived from off-farm work (non-agricultural activities), 33␏rom crops, 13␏rom livestock (mainly cattle), and 7␏rom agricultural labour. Most households kept 1 to 2 animals and only 21 out of 164 households earned more than Rp. 500,000 (~250 US$) per annum from livestock. The most prevalent type of livestock production in the area could be characterized as small-scale cow/calf operation, either by landless households or those with <0.4 ha of land.