Case study on the efficacy of a lanthanum-enriched clay (Phoslock) in controlling eutrophication in Lake Het Groene Eiland (The Netherlands)

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Abstract

Lake Het Groene Eiland was created in the beginning of 2008 by construction of dikes for isolating it from the surrounding 220-ha water body. This so-called claustrum of 5 ha was treated using lanthanum-modified clay (Phoslock®) to control eutrophication and mitigate cyanobacterial nuisance. Cyanobacteria chlorophyll-a were significantly lower in the claustrum than those in the reference water body, where a massive bloom developed in summer, 2008. However, PO4-P and TP did not statistically differ in these two waters. TN and NO3-N were significantly lower in the claustrum, where dense submerged macrophytes beds developed. Lanthanum concentrations were elevated after the applications of the modified clay in the claustrum, but filterable lanthanum dropped rapidly below the Dutch standard of 10.1 µg l-1. During winter, dozens of Canada geese resided at the claustrum. Geese droppings contained an average of 2 mg PO4-P g-1 dry weight and 12 mg NH3-N g-1 dry weight and might present a growing source of nutrients to the water. Constructing the claustrum enabled unrestricted bathing in subsequent three summers, as no swimming bans had to be issued due to cyanobacteria blooms. However, the role of the modified clay in this positive outcome remains unclear, and longevity of the measures questionable.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)253-263
JournalHydrobiologia
Volume710
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

Keywords

  • rare-earth-elements
  • harmful cyanobacterial blooms
  • phosphorus binding clay
  • shallow lakes
  • organic-matter
  • nutrient
  • water
  • restoration
  • sediment
  • impact

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