Carryover of cadmium from feed in growing pigs

L.A.P. Hoogenboom, J. Hattink, A. van Polanen, J.J. van Oostrom, J.T. Verbunt, W.A. Traag, K.A. Kan, J.C.H. Eijkeren, G. de Boeck, M.J. Zeilmaker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Growing male pigs were exposed to cadmium (Cd) at levels around 1 and 10 mg kg–1 feed for up to 12 weeks, administered as CdCl2 or Cd-cysteine (CdCys). Pigs exposed to 10 mg kg–1 showed decreased growth during the last 3 weeks. Liver and kidney concentrations of Cd continuously increased over the entire 12-week exposure, exceeding the European Union limits of 1.0 mg kg–1 (kidney) and 0.5 mg kg–1 (liver) within 3 weeks at the feed level of 10 mg kg–1. A switch to clean feed after 3 weeks for 5 or 9 weeks resulted in steadily decreased levels in kidney and liver, which could be completely attributed to organ growth. At the lower feed level, the level in kidney exceeded the limit almost twofold after 12 weeks, but not after 3 weeks. Liver levels remained below the limit. Metallothionein (MT) levels in livers showed a steady decrease in both untreated and treated animals over time. In kidney such a decrease was only observed in control animals, whereas in the highest-dosed animals the MT concentrations steadily increased. The observed carryover of Cd from feed to liver and kidney was modelled by means of a simple transfer model relating levels in feed via MT levels to accumulation of Cd. Using this model, it was shown that the exposure period of growing pigs to feed containing the European Union limit of 0.5 mg kg–1 feed should be less than 12 weeks in order to prevent Cd levels in the kidneys to exceed the European Union limit.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)68-79
JournalFood Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Volume32
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Fingerprint

Cadmium
Liver
cadmium
Swine
Kidney
kidneys
swine
Metallothionein
liver
European Union
metallothionein
Animals
Cadmium Chloride
animals
Cysteine
Growth
Switches
exposure duration
cysteine

Keywords

  • cd-saturation method
  • sludge-amended soil
  • metallothionein
  • tissues
  • growth
  • swine
  • accumulation
  • dioxins
  • protein
  • cortex

Cite this

Hoogenboom, L.A.P. ; Hattink, J. ; van Polanen, A. ; van Oostrom, J.J. ; Verbunt, J.T. ; Traag, W.A. ; Kan, K.A. ; Eijkeren, J.C.H. ; de Boeck, G. ; Zeilmaker, M.J. / Carryover of cadmium from feed in growing pigs. In: Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment. 2015 ; Vol. 32, No. 1. pp. 68-79.
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abstract = "Growing male pigs were exposed to cadmium (Cd) at levels around 1 and 10 mg kg–1 feed for up to 12 weeks, administered as CdCl2 or Cd-cysteine (CdCys). Pigs exposed to 10 mg kg–1 showed decreased growth during the last 3 weeks. Liver and kidney concentrations of Cd continuously increased over the entire 12-week exposure, exceeding the European Union limits of 1.0 mg kg–1 (kidney) and 0.5 mg kg–1 (liver) within 3 weeks at the feed level of 10 mg kg–1. A switch to clean feed after 3 weeks for 5 or 9 weeks resulted in steadily decreased levels in kidney and liver, which could be completely attributed to organ growth. At the lower feed level, the level in kidney exceeded the limit almost twofold after 12 weeks, but not after 3 weeks. Liver levels remained below the limit. Metallothionein (MT) levels in livers showed a steady decrease in both untreated and treated animals over time. In kidney such a decrease was only observed in control animals, whereas in the highest-dosed animals the MT concentrations steadily increased. The observed carryover of Cd from feed to liver and kidney was modelled by means of a simple transfer model relating levels in feed via MT levels to accumulation of Cd. Using this model, it was shown that the exposure period of growing pigs to feed containing the European Union limit of 0.5 mg kg–1 feed should be less than 12 weeks in order to prevent Cd levels in the kidneys to exceed the European Union limit.",
keywords = "cd-saturation method, sludge-amended soil, metallothionein, tissues, growth, swine, accumulation, dioxins, protein, cortex",
author = "L.A.P. Hoogenboom and J. Hattink and {van Polanen}, A. and {van Oostrom}, J.J. and J.T. Verbunt and W.A. Traag and K.A. Kan and J.C.H. Eijkeren and {de Boeck}, G. and M.J. Zeilmaker",
year = "2015",
doi = "10.1080/19440049.2014.979370",
language = "English",
volume = "32",
pages = "68--79",
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Hoogenboom, LAP, Hattink, J, van Polanen, A, van Oostrom, JJ, Verbunt, JT, Traag, WA, Kan, KA, Eijkeren, JCH, de Boeck, G & Zeilmaker, MJ 2015, 'Carryover of cadmium from feed in growing pigs', Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 68-79. https://doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2014.979370

Carryover of cadmium from feed in growing pigs. / Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Hattink, J.; van Polanen, A.; van Oostrom, J.J.; Verbunt, J.T.; Traag, W.A.; Kan, K.A.; Eijkeren, J.C.H.; de Boeck, G.; Zeilmaker, M.J.

In: Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment, Vol. 32, No. 1, 2015, p. 68-79.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Carryover of cadmium from feed in growing pigs

AU - Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

AU - Hattink, J.

AU - van Polanen, A.

AU - van Oostrom, J.J.

AU - Verbunt, J.T.

AU - Traag, W.A.

AU - Kan, K.A.

AU - Eijkeren, J.C.H.

AU - de Boeck, G.

AU - Zeilmaker, M.J.

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Growing male pigs were exposed to cadmium (Cd) at levels around 1 and 10 mg kg–1 feed for up to 12 weeks, administered as CdCl2 or Cd-cysteine (CdCys). Pigs exposed to 10 mg kg–1 showed decreased growth during the last 3 weeks. Liver and kidney concentrations of Cd continuously increased over the entire 12-week exposure, exceeding the European Union limits of 1.0 mg kg–1 (kidney) and 0.5 mg kg–1 (liver) within 3 weeks at the feed level of 10 mg kg–1. A switch to clean feed after 3 weeks for 5 or 9 weeks resulted in steadily decreased levels in kidney and liver, which could be completely attributed to organ growth. At the lower feed level, the level in kidney exceeded the limit almost twofold after 12 weeks, but not after 3 weeks. Liver levels remained below the limit. Metallothionein (MT) levels in livers showed a steady decrease in both untreated and treated animals over time. In kidney such a decrease was only observed in control animals, whereas in the highest-dosed animals the MT concentrations steadily increased. The observed carryover of Cd from feed to liver and kidney was modelled by means of a simple transfer model relating levels in feed via MT levels to accumulation of Cd. Using this model, it was shown that the exposure period of growing pigs to feed containing the European Union limit of 0.5 mg kg–1 feed should be less than 12 weeks in order to prevent Cd levels in the kidneys to exceed the European Union limit.

AB - Growing male pigs were exposed to cadmium (Cd) at levels around 1 and 10 mg kg–1 feed for up to 12 weeks, administered as CdCl2 or Cd-cysteine (CdCys). Pigs exposed to 10 mg kg–1 showed decreased growth during the last 3 weeks. Liver and kidney concentrations of Cd continuously increased over the entire 12-week exposure, exceeding the European Union limits of 1.0 mg kg–1 (kidney) and 0.5 mg kg–1 (liver) within 3 weeks at the feed level of 10 mg kg–1. A switch to clean feed after 3 weeks for 5 or 9 weeks resulted in steadily decreased levels in kidney and liver, which could be completely attributed to organ growth. At the lower feed level, the level in kidney exceeded the limit almost twofold after 12 weeks, but not after 3 weeks. Liver levels remained below the limit. Metallothionein (MT) levels in livers showed a steady decrease in both untreated and treated animals over time. In kidney such a decrease was only observed in control animals, whereas in the highest-dosed animals the MT concentrations steadily increased. The observed carryover of Cd from feed to liver and kidney was modelled by means of a simple transfer model relating levels in feed via MT levels to accumulation of Cd. Using this model, it was shown that the exposure period of growing pigs to feed containing the European Union limit of 0.5 mg kg–1 feed should be less than 12 weeks in order to prevent Cd levels in the kidneys to exceed the European Union limit.

KW - cd-saturation method

KW - sludge-amended soil

KW - metallothionein

KW - tissues

KW - growth

KW - swine

KW - accumulation

KW - dioxins

KW - protein

KW - cortex

U2 - 10.1080/19440049.2014.979370

DO - 10.1080/19440049.2014.979370

M3 - Article

VL - 32

SP - 68

EP - 79

JO - Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment

JF - Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment

SN - 1944-0049

IS - 1

ER -