Carry-over of veterinary drugs from medicated to non-medicated feeds in commercial feed manufacturing plants

A.A.M. Stolker, T. Zuidema, H.J. van Egmond, E.R. Deckers, R. Herbes, J. Hooglught, E. Olde Heuvel, J. de Jong

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    22 Citations (Scopus)


    Different compound feeds have to be manufactured in the same production line. As a consequence, traces of the first produced feed may remain in the production and get mixed with the next feed batches. This "carry-over" is unavoidable, and so non-medicated feed can be contaminated with veterinary drugs like antibiotics added to the previous batch of medicated feed. To monitor the carry-over of antibiotics in the Netherlands, 21 feed mills were visited and 140 samples of flushing feeds were collected and analysed for containing residues of antibiotics. Results show that 87% of all samples contain concentrations of antibiotics in the range of 0.1-154 mg/kg. It is expected that these levels - which are in the same range as previously found for the nowadays banned antimicrobial growth promoters (AMGPs) - have an effect on the occurrence of microbial resistance. Analysis of a second set of samples collected at four different feed mills directly after the production of oxytetracycline-medicated feed demonstrated that the first part of a flushing feed has much higher contamination than the last part of the batch. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the carry-over percentage shows no correlation with the carry-over determined by one of the standard GMP+ procedures. These observations, unavoidable carry-over, inhomogeneous batches of feed with antibiotics and difficulties to predict the carry-over levels, together with the awareness of the increasing problem of microbial resistance, motivated the NEVEDI, association of Dutch Feed Producers, to announce that they will voluntarily stop the production of medicated feed in 2011. The alternatives for medicated feed are for example water or milk medication or the use of top-dressings at the farm. The consequences and possible new risks of carry-over at the farm are not completely clear yet
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1100-1107
    JournalFood Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
    Issue number6
    Publication statusPublished - 2013


    • feedingstuffs
    • residues
    • animals
    • agents
    • food


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