Cardiovascular Risk Profile and Subsequent Disability and Mental Well-being: The Zutphen Elderly Study

E.J. Giltay, F.G. Zitman, D. Kromhout

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9 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: It is insufficiently known whether classic cardiovascular risk factors are associated with subsequent functional disability and mental well-being in elderly men. Design: A population-based cohort study with 15 years of follow-up from 1985 onward. Setting: The Zutphen Study started as the Dutch contribution to the Seven Countries Study. Participants: Five hundred forty-five (59.2%) of 887 men (aged 64-84 years) who were free of preexisting cardiovascular disease and cancer. Measurements: High cardiovascular risk was defined as having ¿2 classic risk factors: body mass index ¿30.0 kg/m2, presently smoking, hypertension (systolic blood pressure ¿160 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ¿95 mm Hg, or antihypertensive medication), serum cholesterol ¿6.5 mmol/L, and diabetes mellitus. Self-rated health and dispositional optimism were assessed in 1985, 1990, 1995, and 2000. Disability and depressive symptoms (by the Zung self-rating depression scale) were assessed from 1990 onward. Results: The high-risk (N = 230) versus low-risk group (N = 315) had higher multivariate adjusted risks of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratios: 1.43; confidence interval[CI]: 1.15, 1.76; and 1.61; CI: 1.20, 2.18, respectively). High-risk status was also associated with more functional disability at 5, 10, and 15 years (odds ratios of 2.00, 95% CI: 1.25-3.20; 2.51, 95% CI: 1.36-4.65; and 2.45, 95% CI: 0.91-6.61, respectively), adjusted for baseline age, self-rated health, and dispositional optimism. Risk status was not associated with self-rated health, dispositional optimism, or depressive symptoms at follow-up. Conclusion: Combined classic cardiovascular risk factors are not associated with impaired self-rated health or mental well-being in elderly men, but are predictive of functional disability
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)874-882
JournalThe American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2008


  • depressive symptoms
  • heart-disease
  • functional disability
  • association
  • population
  • life
  • health
  • metaanalysis
  • cholesterol
  • prevalence

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