Carbon footprint mitigation on vacation : A norm activation model

J.J. Vaske, M.H. Jacobs, T.K. Espinosa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


The norm activation theory and past research suggest that ecologically appropriate behaviors increase when individuals (a) ascribe personal responsibility (AR) to protect the environment and (b) are aware of the consequences (AC) of their actions. We examined the influence of AR and AC on ecological norm salience and reported pro-environmental behavior while people were on vacation. Data were obtained from a random sample of the general public in the Netherlands (n=1144, response rate=88%). As predicted AC influenced AR. Norm salience partially mediated the influence of AR and AC on reported behavior. As AR and AC increased, norm salience increased; this model accounted for 32% of the variance in the norm concept. As all the three constructs (i.e., AR, AC, norm salience) increased, respondents were more willing to engage in pro-environmental behavior. The partial mediation model accounted for 44% of the variance in reported behavior. Findings here support the continued use of the norm activation model to explain tourist behavior.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)80-86
JournalJournal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism
Publication statusPublished - 2015

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