In this study, two capsaicin analogues, N-eicosapentaenoyl vanillylamine (EPVA) and N-docosahexaenoyl vanillylamine (DHVA), were enzymatically synthesized from their corresponding n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), both dietary relevant components. The compounds significantly reduced the production of some lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide (NO), macrophage-inflammatory protein-3α (CCL20) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 or CCL2), by RAW264.7 macrophages. Next to this, only EPVA increased insulin secretion by pancreatic INS-1 832/13 β-cells, while raising intracellular Ca 2+ and ATP concentrations. This suggests that the stimulation of insulin release occurs through an increase in the intracellular ATP/ADP ratio in the first phase, while is calcium-mediated in the second phase. Although it is not yet known whether EPVA is endogenously produced, its potential therapeutic value for diabetes treatment merits further investigation.
- Fatty acid amides