The mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS, also known as VISA, IPS-1, or CARDIF) plays an essential role in the type I interferon (IFN) response and in retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) mediated antiviral innate immunity in mammals. In this study, the caprine MAVS gene (caMAVS, 1566 bp) was identified and cloned. The caMAVS shares the highest amino acid similarity (98.1%) with the predicted sheep MAVS. Confocal microscopy analysis of partial deletion mutants of caMAVS revealed that the transmembrane and the so-called Non-Characterized domains are indispensable for intracellular localization to mitochondria. Overexpression of caMAVS in caprine endometrial epithelial cells up-regulated the mRNA levels of caprine interferon-stimulated genes. We concluded that caprine MAVS mediates the activation of the type I IFN pathway. We further demonstrated that both the CARD-like domain and the transmembrane domain of caMAVS were essential for the activation of the IFN-β promotor. The interaction between caMAVS and caprine RIG-I and the vital role of the CARD and NC domain in this interaction was demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation. Upon infection with the Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus (PPRV, genus Morbillivirus), the level of MAVS was greatly reduced. This reduction was prevented by the addition of the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Moreover, we found that viral protein V could interact and colocalize with MAVS. Together, we identified caMAVS as a RIG-I interactive protein involved in the activation of type I IFN pathways in caprine cells and as a target for PPRV immune evasion.
- innate immunity
- mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS)
- Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus (PPRV)