Ca2+ signals during early lymphocyte activation in carp Cyprinus carpio L.

B.M.L. Verburg-van Kemenade, J.P.J. Saeij, G. Flik, P.H.G.M. Willems

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


To measure cellular responses and the involvement of increased cytosolic Ca2 levels ([Ca2 ]i), peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) of carp were loaded with the fluorescent intracellular Ca2 indicators Fluo-3 and Fura-2. Responses of lymphocytes to T-cell mitogen (phytohaemagglutinin, PHA), to B-cell mitogen (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) and to immunoglobulin (Ig) cross-linking with a monoclonal antibody to carp Ig were measured using flow cytometry. Both T-cell stimulation by PHA and B-cell stimulation by membrane Ig cross-linking evoked a rapid elevation of [Ca2 ]i. B-cell stimulation by LPS was not linked to an increase in [Ca2 ]i. As judged by the percentage of reacting cells, it was concluded that all Ig-positive lymphocytes reacted to Ig cross-linking by elevating [Ca2 ]i. At the single-cell level, the reactions of Fura-2-loaded cells were followed every 6 s using digital imaging microscopy. Both cells displaying spontaneous [Ca2 ]i oscillations and non-oscillating cells responded to stimulation with an increase in [Ca2 ]i, sometimes, in already oscillating cells, accompanied by an increase in frequency and/or amplitude of the oscillations. These results show that intracellular Ca2 responses of PBL upon activation resemble those in mammals and form a powerful tool for studies into cell-specific regulation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)591-598
JournalJournal of Experimental Biology
Publication statusPublished - 1998


  • B-cell cross-linking
  • Carp
  • Cyprinus carpio
  • Digital imaging microscopy
  • Fish
  • Flow cytometry
  • Fluo3
  • Fura-2
  • Intracellular Ca2+
  • Lipopolysaccharide
  • Lymphocytes
  • Phytohaemagglutinin


Dive into the research topics of 'Ca2+ signals during early lymphocyte activation in carp Cyprinus carpio L.'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this